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  • Rıdvan Demir

THE PROPHET MOSES & PHARAOH



PROBABLE CHRONOLOGY:

1. He was born in Egypt (el-Kasas 28: 7).

2. He grew up in the place of Pharaoh (es-Shuara, 26:18; el-Kasas, 28: 8-13).

3. He killed a Jew by mistake and he went to Madyan (es-Shuara, 26:19-21; el-Kasas, 28:15-22).

4. He gets married to the daughter of Prophet Shuayb 8-10 years (el-Kasas, 28:27-28).

5. He traveled with Hidir (probably) (el-Kehf, 18:65-70).

6. He took the message from Allah on the Sinai Mountain when he came back to Egypt (el-Meryem, 19:51-52; et-Taha, 20, 11-13).

7. He is sent to the Pharaoh with his brother Aaron by Allah (el-Furqan, 25:35-36; el-Araf, 7:103-109; et-Taha, 20: 42-44, el-Muminun, 23:45-46).

8. Egyptian magicians believed in Allah, Prophets Moses and Aaron (el-Araf, 7:120-122, et-Taha 20:70-73).

9. He showed ‘nine miracles’ (el-Araf, 7:133; el-Isra 107:101; es-Shuara, 26:47-48).

10. Samiri produced the golden cow (event of Icl) when Moses went to the Sinai Mountain secondly for signboards (el-Baqarah, 2:51, 54, el-Araf, 7:148, et-Taha, 20:91).

11. Moses and his people exit from Egypt (es-Shuara, 26: 52).

12. Pharaoh and his army followed him and his people (es-Shuara, 26:60).

13. He and the Jews transcend the sea, but Pharaoh and his army could not and they were drowned in the sea (el-Araf, 7:136; el-Isra, 17:103; et-Taha, 20:78; es-Shuara, 26:64-66).

14. The Jews were waiting in desert during ‘forty years’ for punishment (el-Maidah, 5:26).

15. The Jews entered Jerusalem promise land with Moses’ young companion probably Joshua after Moses.



MY DETERMINATIONS


* Prophet Moses is mentioned the most in the Quran as Prophet. The Quran gives extra information about Moses and his people. The Quran states there is one Allah and it illustrates about Moses and his brother Aaron.


* Quran uses “ furqan” word for Tevrat (Pentateuch). There are several alternatives about furqan:

The Furqan can be an adjective of Tevrat, it can be low judgement or miracles i.e. bright hand or rod, or it can be victory (el-Baqarah, 2:52).


* Quran said that “...and slay yourself”. Mufassiruns (interpretaters of the Quran) interprets with three commands that:

  1. Killing himself or herself is suicide and this is impossible in Islam.

  2. When Moses went to the Sinai Mountain the Jews adored golden cow and then Allah invited them to repent but they did not accept. Thus Allah ordered good people to kill unrepentant people. Although Mufassirs had accepted this command generally, I want to propose a third command.


  1. You have to kill evil desires or bad feeling. i.e. to adore idols and animals.


* The Quran talks about the body of Pharaoh and said that : “...we save you in the body, that you may be a sign to those who come after you!” We could not know exactly but probably this Pharaoh was II. Ramses. His body is in the British Museum in London, England. It is very interesting that his body’s shape is like in bowing posture. (secde) (Yunus, 10: 92)


* Quran advises about the invitation of Allah. This advice is qawl-i leyyin. (soft word). Because people are affected with smoth sentences. This is a psychological determination about humans. This is always effective. Thus we are learning the call method according to Islam, for even Pharaoh. (et-Taha, 20:42-44).


* “He (Pharaoh) said, ‘have you come to drive us out of our land with your magic, O Moses’ ” (et-Taha, 20:57). We understand that Pharaoh was afraid of a change of administration. The change would be very bad according to Pharaoh. In this concept governers (State religion) and public belief system are very different. Different idols, different understanding of the hereafter, and different temples. The Jews were only ten percent of the population of Egypt, but he and his men were afraid. On the other hand he had ordered that all the Jewish boys be killed (el-Kasas, 28: 4).

Egyptian magicians were abbots of Amon culture. If magicians would beat or defeat Moses it would mean that Pharaoh is the God and there is no other God in the cosmos. In this concept Pharaoh would renew his power above the public (es-Suara 26:39-40). On the other hand Pharaoh orders for a high tower because he wants to control or see Allah. In fact he knew that Allah could not be seen and that he was not the God. He did not create anything. Nevertheless he had invited the public to come with this reason. He was a very smart leader who planned that, but he did not succeed. So he would show himself powerful and govern the Egyptians, because he had only problems with ambitions to govern, like Abu Cahil, Utbe and others in history of Islam (el-Kasas, 28:38).


* “…and give a Minister (Vezir) from my family, Aaron, my brother; add to my strength through him, and make him share my task…” (et-Taha, 20: 29-32). This verse, according to Islam, Aaron was a prophet and at the same time was copartner in governing with Moses. According to Islamic law’s understanding, collective government is possible in Islam. (Coalition)


* Rasul (Messenger) and Nabi (Prophet) are a little different. Rasul means ambassador or envoy, but Nabi means Prophet. Any Rasul had sent the new book and new law, but not any Nabi. So any Rasul is Nabi, but not any Nabi is a Rasul (el-Hacc, 22:52). Quran uses the Rasul and Nabi for Moses, but does not use the Rasul for Aaron while it uses Nabi for Aaron. (el-Meryem, 19: 51; 19: 53).


* Six days working and the seventh restful in a lot of Old Testament passages (Exodus, 20:811).


* The Moses means derived or extracted from water in Hebrew (Exodus, 2:10).

Passover means transcend non-touch, because angel of death would not touch all the Jews when they would exodus out of Egypt.


* According to the Old Testament, Pharaoh would persevere to prove the power of God, thus Egyptians and the Jews would believe in God when Pharaoh perseveres. (Exodus, 7:3-5; 11:3-4; 11:9-10; 12:36; 14:17-18).


As a result the Moses and Pharaoh story expresses for us that there is only one Allah and Moses and Aaron are his Nabis (Moses also messenger). In this concept the stories of Moses and Pharaoh imply ambitions of leadership and governing that Pharaoh had.

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