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  • Rıdvan Demir

DOES THE EXPECTED ONE HAVE A DIVINE CHARACTER? PROBLEMATIC PASSAGES BETWEEN JUDAISM AND CHRISTIANITY

Güncelleme tarihi: 13 Mar 2023



Title

Pharisees, Judaism and the Church


by

Ridvan Demir



In this essay, I will focus on three Hebrew Scriptures passages which are considered problematic within Judaism and Christianity, and which are used to identify the expected savior. This essay will be limited to those passages about the ‘expected savior’, who is from the ‘line of David’, the ‘son of man who will come from the clouds’ and the ‘king who will enter Jerusalem on the foal of a donkey’. The essay will not touch on other problematic concepts, such as ‘Shiloh’, ‘branch’, ‘tendril’, ‘horn’, ‘Immanuel’, ‘almah’ (virgin), ‘son of God’, etc.. After the etymology of “messiah” is examined, the paper will focus on three important and famous passages and will discuss how the passages are understood in the New Testament by both Judaic and Christian traditions.

In conclusion, I will refer to Hebrew Scripture passages that have different Jewish and Christian interpretations. Jewish people still expect a coming Messiah or messianic period, but “Savior” does not have the divine character that it has in Christianity. Encyclopedic references to the Hebrew and Greek Bibles will appear in the text, but the Biblical references that I found appear in the footnotes. ‘Hebrew Scriptures’ will be used instead of ‘Old Testament’ throughout this essay, and the Judaic perspective will be discussed in more detail than the Christian perspective because it should not forgotten that the Hebrew Scriptures of Judaism existed before Christianity, and in this case, are accepted as Christianity’s established precedent. The fundamental, earliest belief of Christians was Jesus’ divine character, though this nature is sharply rejected by Judaism. I will try to explain why Jesus was not accepted as a savior by Judaism (which is historically monotheistic.) I will also try to explain how the Christian interpretation of Hebrew Scriptures anticipating a Messiah or messianic age are in sharp contrast to the Jewish readings of the same texts. Judaism does not assign Jesus the role of Christian Messiah accorded to him by his followers.

Lastly, I should express that this essay constitutes one section of my bigger project in the future. The goal of this project is to show the possibilities of understanding two different interpretations of one Holy Scripture by two different traditions. I believe that this approach will help in the conception of the various sides of theological arguments and thus will assist in the development of an affirmative Jewish-Christian dialogue that will help each tradition understand each other better.


ETYMOLOGY

In the Hebrew Scriptures, ‘Messiah’ is used not only for ‘accepted savior’ but also as a title of Jewish kings, important people, priests, and Cohens who lived in history. Sometimes the Hebrew Scriptures use other words instead of “messiah.” ‘Messiah’ may also imply in the Hebrew Scriptures the accepted savior but not so clearly in reference to a future king. According to Hebrew Scriptures, Yahweh is the real savior and ultimate authority.[1] All nations and kings need the grace of Him. Messiah is Aramaic, originating from ‘Mes hi’ha’ that passed to Hebrew as (Ha-Melekh) ‘Ha-Mashi’ah (the Anointed King)’.[2] The word passed to Greek from the Hebrew as ‘hristos’ (christos) in the Septuagint[3] and into English as ‘Christ’.[4]

Sandmel says of the etymology of this concept that: “In Palestine, the symbol of making a man king was not to crown him, but to anoint him with oil. The Hebrew word for “anointed” is Mashiah; the word is usually spelled in English Messiah.”[5] He continues that “the Hebrew for ‘the anointed one’ is messiah, and ‘Messiah’ translated into Greek is Christos, which in English is shortened into Christ. Nothing in the mere word Christ relates it to Jesus; the association of Jesus and Christ is historical, not linguistic.”[6]

Its modern meaning was realized relatively soon after Jesus’ period, but the original meaning for Messiah is “one anointed with holy oil (probably olive oil)”, “a king”[7] or a blessed (anointed[8]) one. According to E. Jenni, the word is used as ‘blessed one’ or ‘appointed/managing one’ twenty-nine times (cf. II Samuel 1:21). The word is also used to connotate a ‘high priest who has inherited certain functions of the king’ (Levililer, 4:3, 5, 16; 6:22-3; 6:15; Daniel, 9:25-26). Finally, it once refers (probably) to the patriarchs who were regarded as prophets (I Chronicles 16:22)’. Here, Messiah is a title of one blessed by God as ‘the Lord’s anointed’ (I Samuel 24:6-23; II Samuel 1:14-16). In each one of these expressions, Yahweh establishes very close relations with kings, patriarchs, priest, etc.[9]

In the language of the Hebrew Scriptures, any Jewish king can be ‘blessed by God’, and this term is limited to no specific king. It has also been seen as clergy (Psalms 105:15; I Chron 16:22), the ‘blessed ones’ in plural form. Detailed passages referring to the coming of the Messiah are assumed to reveal the general doctrine in the Hebrew Scriptures, but it is impossible from these passages to explain the range of Christian hope in Jesus as this expected ‘messianic’ king and savior. Any passage which refers to a savior expectation should be discussed separately.[10] When the New Testament period arrived, the king messiah expected by Judaism very clearly became the savior messiah found in Jesus. The main topics of the New Testament outline his life, crucifixion, death, resurrection, and return to redeem his followers near the apocalypse. A man who does not believe that these main topics form the basis of his faith has been unanimously rejected during the history of church. According to Christians, the expected savior is Jesus the Messiah who appears (implicitly) many times throughout Hebrew Scriptures. The next headings of my essay concern this problem and its solution.


SON OF DAVID

The Hebrew Scriptures emphasize the expected Savior’s connection with David’s line. Nevertheless, sometimes, it is seen directed as an expectation that these are directed to one man, namely a king, who is chosen as special. This belief has been idealized to a ‘golden age’ understanding of the early term of the Jewish nation, during its regression period after the decadence of the Kingdom. The expected king was increasingly accepted as a special representative of Yahweh[11] connected both with the messianic expectation of Hebrew Scriptures’ historical Kingdom of David and a perfect future world messiah expected from a revolution of Yahweh.[12]

The savior who is expected from the line of David will be anointed[13] by God; will win victories; will show love to him[14], his ancestor David and his line forever[15]; will continue this kingdom line forever[16]; and will increase the power of the king who was anointed by Him – as has been expressed by God’s word in the Hebrew Scriptures. However, this promise will be realized only when his line continues to stay in God’s straight path.[17] The expressions concerning Messiahs who were alive in the early term focused on David and his son Solomon,[18] but the expected messiah has been used for an expected king who is from line of David in the Hebrew Scriptures more generally.[19] Messianic expectation is often created by promises God made within God’s covenant with David. The Messiah, who will be sent by God, will establish His sovereignty and all Jewish people will return from exile (the Diaspora) to gather and govern in Israel, which will be restored. However, that meaning concerns the late, not early, term.[20] We should not forget that the initial context of the Messiah’s first meaning was the reign of King Solomon, David’s son, not a special king who will appear in the future.[21]

The II Samuel 7:8-17 passage is one of the most typical renditions of the Hebrew Scripture belief structure concerning the Messiah. The main idea of this passage concerns the continuity of David’s kingdom. In most cases, an individual messiah in the Hebrew Scriptures was connected to David’s kingdom, but the passage does not refer to a chosen successor and is not connected with eschatology. There is a messiah from the line of David’s happy age that came as the work of Yahweh. However, as a child he is not a conqueror but has been born as a prince of peace.[22] The passage is not directed to a person of David’s lineage but to a representative of David’s kingdom. The One who will bring salvation is Yahweh. The king who will come from David’s line appears after the realization of salvation.[23] This golden age will be realized by Yahweh, but it was normal to believe in a worldly representative who will come from the generation of David for this salvation from Yahweh.[24]

Solomon’s Temple (B.C. 961-922), namely Bet-Hamikdash in Hebrew, is very important in the messianic beliefs of Judaism. This Temple’s clearest passage is I Chron 28:4-7. David expresses that the temple he has yearned for and desired to establish will be made by his son, Solomon, not himself. That is, there is enough proof to accept that the expected messianic person is David’s son Solomon.[25] This passage states absolutely that the house of Lord will be made by Solomon and not David.[26] After he prays, God repeats that He will continue his kingdom forever if Solomon stays in His straight way and obeys His rules.[27] Yahweh, who made a promise to the line of David, has realized His covenant in Solomon.[28] In this way, this savior expectation, which has yearning and longing, started to improve and develop after the second collapse of the Temple. According to Jewish people, one day, the messiah will come, establish the Temple a third time, and make everything very good. However, the Christian world has persisted to understand that this Jewish savior is Jesus, the Messiah of Nazareth.

The New Testament period accepts Jesus as the Messiah, the expected savior from the line of David. Many passages in the New Testament refer openly to that:

“Since [David] was a prophet, he knew that God had sworn with an oath to him that he would put one of his descendants on his throne. Foreseeing this, David spoke of the resurrection of the Messiah, saying, ‘he was not abandoned to Hades, nor did his flesh experience corruption.’ This Jesus God raised up, and of that all of us are witness. Being therefore exalted at the right hand of God, and having received from the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit, he has poured out this that you both see and hear. For David did not ascend into the heavens, but he himself says, ‘the Lord said to my Lord, ‘sit at my right hand, until I make your enemies your footstool.’ ”[29]

“Then they asked for a king; and God gave them Saul son of Kish, a man of the tribe of Benjamin, who reigned for forty years. When he had removed him, he made David their king. In his testimony about him he said, ‘I have found David, son of Jesse, to be a man after my heart, who will carry out all my wishes.’ Of this man’s posterity God has brought to Israel a savior, Jesus, as he promised…”[30]

“Now while the Pharisees were gathered together, Jesus asked them this question: “what do you think of the Messiah? Whose son is he?” They said to him, “The son of David.” “He said to them, “How is it then that David by the Spirit calls him Lord, saying, ‘the Lord said to my Lord, “Sit at my right hand, until I put your enemies under your feet” ’? If David thus calls him Lord, how can he be his son?” no one was able to give him an answer, nor from that day did anyone dare to ask him any more questions.” [31]

Apollos, who was born in Alexandria as a Jew and chose Christianity in Ephesus goes to Achaia and refutes the proofs of Jewish thought to prove that Jesus was the Messiah. Apollos knew the Hebrew Scriptures very well.[32] The first verse of the gospel of Matthew – the first gospel in the New Testament – reads, “An account of the genealogy of Jesus the Messiah, the son of David, the son of Abraham,”[33] which lists a long family tree of Jesus going back to David.[34] Again, in the first section of the gospel of Matthew, it is reported that Mary became pregnant by a miracle while engaged to Joseph, who later planned to leave Mary. In a dream, Joseph sees an angel who says to him: “Joseph, son of David, do not be afraid to take Mary as your wife, for the child conceived in her is from the Holy Spirit.”[35] Jesus’ Davidic pedigree, through Joseph, is thus confirmed by the angel. Other references in the New Testament to Jesus’ being from the line of David often have people address him as the “Son of David”[36]. People used this form of address when they required healing from Jesus.[37] Occasionally, “David” or “son of David” concepts[38] are joined together with hosanna,[39] as when Jesus went into Jerusalem. Some people who did not accept Jesus as Messiah said this was impossible since Jesus was from Galilee, not Bethlehem from where the Hebrew Scriptures emphasize that the savior will come. So, the New Testament makes a point to say Jesus was born in Bethlehem.[40]




THE SON OF MAN

The Hebrew Scriptures sometimes use the word “messiah” but often use other words to refer to the Messiah. For example, ‘like a son of man’ (Hebrew, ke bar enash) is used in the book of Daniel to predict that:

“as I watched in the night visions, I saw one like a human being coming with the clouds of heaven. And he came to the Ancient One and was presented before him. To him was given dominion and glory and kingship that all peoples, nations, and languages should serve him. His dominion is an everlasting dominion that shall not pass away, and his kingship is one that shall never be destroyed.”[41]

It is doubtful that the figure of a ‘son of man’ seen ‘with the clouds of heaven’ is a symbol of Israel in the seventh section of the book of Daniel. This figure is understood to face the enemy of world empires as a human and could easily be understood as an individual Messiah. Hebrew Scriptures also use this expression before the book of Daniel. It introduces ‘son of man’ as if the term is known and does not need explanation, especially with the combined cloud expression. Consequently, this thought was a known element.

Gressman believes that we have a messiah who seems very parallel with a figure who originated from a previous foreign culture. According to Sellin, this person who passes in Daniel 7:13 has been transformed into the Messiah,[42] who will be a king at the same time. This passage in Daniel has caused arguments between Jewish and Christian communities because of their different interpretations. This passage interests Christian researchers, but Jewish scholars reject that the ‘one like the son of man’ is Jesus. According to Christians, Jesus will come down from among the clouds, namely from heaven.

Sandmel refers to the problem of the expected one not having a divine character. “Why did the Jews not accept Jesus as the Messiah; in this later time the definition of the Messiah had become notably transformed from something involving specific and temporal characteristics into something involving more suprahuman abstractions” He continues briefly that there is no detail in the New Testament about how Jesus was accepted as this “son of man”, but it is very clear that this phrase has been used to mean that Jesus was more than human. This expression about a ‘son of man’ is used in many passages of Ezekiel to mean ‘no more than man admittedly on all sides’ and ‘son of man’ does not mean a supernatural character in Daniel 7:13. One should recall that ‘son of man’ does not imply a divine character in its dictionary definition. According to the Jewish perspective, that was only added by Gentile thinking to become synonymous with “Messiah.”[43] Sandmel adds in his books that “to us Jesus is never more than a man, and deeply as some of us Jews are able to sympathize with the tragedy of his life and death, we do not see in it any special working of him divine.”[44]

In the New Testament, Jesus is absolutely human and uses ‘son of man’ to describe himself.[45] This term is occasionally used in the Hebrew Scriptures[46] but the ‘Son of man’[47] phrase exists over eighty times in the New Testament.[48] While this term is used for the title of Jesus, sometimes it was used as son of Mary in the special meaning of the New Testament. Nevertheless, it should not be forgotten that this title was also used for Jesus to suggest his two characters in one body. The Gospel of Matthew 24 reads: “then the sign of the Son of man will appear in heaven, and then all the tribes of the earth will mourn, and they will see ‘the Son of Man coming on the clouds of heaven’ with power and great glory.” This is taken as a sign of the coming of Jesus and uses[49] ‘son of man’ to evoke eschatological and apocalyptical meanings. Thus, the Christian New Testament sees Jesus as the ‘son of man’ as the fulfillment of these Hebrew Scriptures. The same section, Matthew 24, reads: “so also, when you see all these things, you know that he is near, at the very gates.”[50] When Jesus was in the Sanhedrin, the Jewish high court, the religious leaders ask him, ‘Are you the Messiah, the son of God?’ He replies: “You have said so. But I tell you, from now on you will see the son of man seated at the right hand of power and coming on the clouds of heaven.”[51] Jesus went on to say that he is the savior anticipated by the Jewish ‘son of man.’ Interestingly, Jesus is referencing[52] the Hebrew Scriptures from Daniel. According to C. W. Emmet, Jesus is presented as ‘son of man’ because this term includes elements of transcendent mystery as well as humanity, but it especially has been chosen by Jesus to avoid the political implication in referring to himself as part of the line of David. The main problem is that Jesus claimed during his mission life to be the savior from God but this claim never appears very clearly in his sentences. Christian authorities interpreted this claim although Jesus abstained from using some more specific terms, possibly because he was under political oppression.

Paul’s letters to the Thessalonians closely link the return of the Messiah (I Thess., 1:10; 3:13; 4:13-17; II Thess. 1:7-8; 2:8) with the ‘son of man’ found in the book of Enoch and the Gospels. Here, one who is anti-Christ and not in the law stays opposite. Messiah will divide that anti-Christ through a breath from his mouth (II Thess. 2:3-12). The densest book about Jesus’ return to earth as a savior is Revelation, the last book of the New Testament. Revelation was written by John who said in the first section: “I turned to see whose voice it was that spoke to me, and on turning I saw seven golden lamp stands I saw one like the Son of Man, clothed with a long robe and with a golden sash across his chest.” This image is of Jesus returned as the glorified ‘son of man.’

After Jesus’ death on the cross, many of his followers clearly lost the faith that was described by Jesus, but afterwards they started to expect Jesus to rise up and comeback again with power. Christianity was favorable to the Messianic David and ‘son of man’ concepts to (at last) accept Jesus as a Messiah who was both Savior and Divine. The paradox about the identity of Jesus as being both human and divine savior is explained by later Christian councils as the doctrine of the incarnation. Although Jesus of Nazareth symbolizes the logos, he is eventually shown as the second person of the Trinity. He is the incarnation of the fullness of the One God. Jesus is the Messiah and Savior of the world who was resurrected and will come back. In the course of time, this doctrine of the divinity of Jesus has become a fundamental Christian belief, but it does not jive with Judaism.[53]


ENTRY INTO JERUSALEM ON FOAL

It is mentioned in Zachariah 9:9 that the Messiah would enter Jerusalem on a foal. Nevertheless, when we look beyond of the expectation of waiting for the last King, there is no mention of a specific place for unlimited sovereignty of Yahweh. In the Hebrew Scriptures, God sometimes mentions Himself with or without Messiah, but the Messiah does not have a supernatural character independent from God.[54] It is difficult to give a specific time that this Messianic passage was written, but it includes this statement: “Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion! Shout aloud, O daughter Jerusalem! Lo, your king comes to you; [the messiah is pictured as a humble king of peace]: triumphant and victorious is he, humble and riding on an ass, on a colt the foal of an ass.” The ass, the originally the royal mount (Genesis 49:11), is now, in contrast to the horse, the symbol for the king’s love of peace. “He [LXX; Hebrew “I”] will cut off the chariot from Ephraim and the war horse from Jerusalem; and the battle bow shall be cut off, and he shall command peace to the nations.”[55] The news taking place in Zechariah 9:9-10 is different, and the prophecy belongs to a later period. Although a donkey was the symbol of Royalty (cf. Genesis 49:11), here it represents humbleness. The King has overcome enemies, but the main point is that he has a peaceful character. It is clear that this king does not seem to be from David’s lineage.[56]

According to Christian beliefs, the covenants in Hebrew Scriptures between God and God’s people are realized in Jesus the Messiah. The coming of Jesus the Messiah from the lineage of David represents the highest point of Gods’ salvation. This promise of God concerns the government of God’s kingdom until eternity. While Peter recognized Jesus as a savior (with salvation being possible through belief in Jesus), in other places in the New Testament, the imagery of Jesus as a savior in the kingly lineage of David illuminates most important passages. Jerusalem “is the city of great King”[57] and “king”[58] is mentioned many times. Jesus entering Jerusalem is described in Matthew 21:1-11 when Jesus got closer to Jerusalem and commanded two of his students to find a donkey. This event was to confirm David’s words: “Tell the daughters of Zion, look your king is coming to you, humble, and mounted on a donkey, and on a colt, the foal of a donkey.” As foretold in Hebrew Scriptures, Jesus enters Jerusalem as a humble king. In answer to the question “Who is he?” people responded, “This is the prophet Jesus from Nazareth in Galilee.” In the New Testament, the entrance of Jesus is the same as in the Hebrew Scriptures, particularly Zechariah.[59] Jesus the Messiah entered Jerusalem as a humble king while avoiding the efforts of people to actually make him King.[60] Jesus arranged the time and prepared every little detail before entering his ancestor’s (David’s)[61] city. He was welcomed and greeted as a son of David; however “the Great King”[62] enters on a donkey. He proved to the daughters of Zion (a symbol of the Christian Church) that he is humble, not violent.[63] For this special day, His sovereignty’s people were children and shepherds[64] informed by angels of Jesus’ birth.[65] Jesus went to Jerusalem despite knowing he would be killed.[66] According to Christians, Jesus proved through this attitude that he is the Savior and Messiah referenced in Hebrew Scriptures. However, if these passages which refer to Jesus’ are examined closely, this conclusion does not seem to be correct.


CONCLUSION

Followers of Jesus believe in his resurrection after he was crucified. With time, the messianic title of Jesus Christ started being used by Christian people as a rising to the sky.[67] The New Testament includes expectations of a Messiah from David’s lineage and is personalized as a King. Hristos and other Christian terms are Greek words derived from the word ‘Messiah.’[68] Although ‘Messiah’ was not used in Hebrew Scriptures, Christian writers attributed messianic ideas from the Hebrew Scriptures to Jesus. However, even in those passages which supposedly concern Jesus and his church, the direct references are not very clear in the discussed passages of Hebrew Scriptures. In general, their meanings refer to hopes for a better and more glorious future. On the other hand, Messiah is used to mean only one person, in many ways like Jesus, though the New Testament uses the term without any limits.[69] However, Christianity makes a noticeable effort to emphasize how Jesus conforms to certain aspects of the Hebrew Messiah traditions. For example, Jesus’ birth in Bethlehem, the city of his ancestor David, was mentioned as a sign of the expected Messiah.

Strong messianic beliefs in Judaism greatly affected Christianity. Some authorities think the ‘savior’ and ‘messiah’ concepts found in Christianity were actually taken from Palestinian Jews, proof of which includes the parallel use of ‘son of man’ and ‘son of David’ expressions in the New Testament and Hebrew Scriptures.[70] Messianic hope or future expectation plays a very important role in the history of the Hebrew Scriptures. However, for Christian theology, Messiah does not refer only to the last days but also takes on a different meaning in the past, present and future. No doubt, after the death of Jesus on the cross, many followers lost their belief. After his death and ascension to heaven, the idea of coming back with all his strength was spreading through the Christian community. Suffering painfulness on the cross and resurrection became main topics of Christian theology. The idea of a Suffering and Risen Lord, over time, took on a greater doctrine identity than Jesus’ humanity. The belief that the Messiah is not dead and is coming back a second time quickly became the major theological underpinning of Christianity[71] and fit well with some interpretations of these selected passages in Hebrew Scriptures.

Sellin discusses presumed parallels detailing an expected messiah in the Hebrew Scriptures and concludes that there is no relationship between a divine savior who will come at the end of history and this expected messiah. However, there is praise for a special king to come in the golden age. There is natural hope for each king to bring happiness and peace, but Sellin said there is no proof concerning this true messiah so special to Israel. “The ancient East knows no eschatological king.”[72] Contrary to the idea of Hebrew Scriptures pertaining to the term Messiah, Jesus in the New Testament took on this name. The term became commonly used to describe Jesus, though its meaning changed. In the New Testament, the most used name of Jesus is Messiah. According to the New Testament, which accepts Jesus as Messiah, return of him is certain. However, it is a big problem that Christians accept the Hebrew Scriptures as a holy book and still want to interpret such passages with a perspectivethat is so problematic for Jews. This becomes difficult for Christian-Jewish relations.

During his life, Jesus never identified himself as a messiah, but after his death the theological development of the resurrection brought believers in Jesus – even those who knew him in person – to view Jesus as the promised Messiah. That is why Biblical writers named him “Jesus the Messiah”.[73] However, according to the Jewish perspective, “king messiah” was not a godlike being and certainly was not expected to be divine or one with God. As evidence, I report from Mose ben Maimon (Maimonides / 1135-1204), the most famous Jewish scholar of the middle ages, who gives reference from the book of Deuteronomy that:

“Then the lord your god will restore your fortunes and have compassion on you, gathering you again from all the peoples among whom the lord your god has scattered you. Even if you are exiled to the ends of the world, from there the lord your god will gather you, and from there he will bring you into the land that your ancestors possessed, and you will possess it, he will make you more prosperous and numerous than your ancestors.”[74]

After that he continues that these sentences which passed into the Hebrew Scriptures included all the promises which will be informed by prophets afterwards. There is no mention that the anointed king will show signs and miracles or make all things new or will be resurrected, etc. Maimonides was waiting for a real (earthly) king, and not for a king who will be transcendental. He says about this king that he will realize the rules of the Tanakh. These sentences of Maimonides are critical of Christians who accept Jesus as an openly divine messiah.[75] The Messiah (or messiahs) is human all the time. Although they do have an extraordinary character, never does messiah mean more than a man sent by God and never does it means ‘savior’ as is found in Christianity. He has been supposed a king who is from the line of David. [76] It should be admitted that trinity doctrine, which says that Jesus is part of God as Son, cannot be explained fully even according to Christians. David Berger about this issue says that:

“The Jewish argument that the combined doctrines of trinity and incarnation created insuperable philosophical difficulties was a central and effective point… If the son alone was incarnated, this contradicts the Christian assertion that the persons are inseparable, and if they were all incarnated, ‘then who was in heaven all that time inasmuch as they are inseparable? This either/or argument is based on the doctrine that the son alone was incarnated, a doctrine clearly stated..., accepted by Christians, that God cannot be divided. The problem arises as a result of the combination of two dogmas, the trinity and incarnation, particularly after the former had been abstractly philosophized.”[77]

To explain Jesus as a divine savior is such a difficult issue.

In conclusion, Jesus never said that the Messiah has no place in the New Testament; however Jesus abstained from giving positive answers to the questions asked by the people and the Sanhedrin. Building on the Savior expectation motif of the Abrahamic tradition, Christianity – most certainly with Paul’s powerful and influential effect in the New Testament – adopted the word Messiah and developed a meaning far from its original Hebrew meanings. Though this effect of Paul has been used for most structures of belief in the New Testament, it is necessary to examine how the word ‘messiah’ was originally understood in Hebrew Scriptures. The New Testament clearly promotes the idea of Jesus as Messiah, and we have to consider whether or not Jesus even accepted this idea of Messiah since Jesus never clearly says ‘I am Messiah.’ According to C. W. Emmet, Jesus never perceived the Messiah to mean a limited typology or as a descriptive item, but he perceived himself as Messiah very widely and used Hebrew Scriptures to support that claim.[78] According to the monotheistic beliefs of Judaism, Jesus was not accepted which was very normal as a Savior-Messiah who has divine character according to Christian theology.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Aydin, Mehmet, Hiristiyan Kaynaklarina Gore Hiristiyanlik, Ankara 1995.


Berger, David “The Jewish-Christian Debate in the High Middle Ages”, Philadelphia 1979.


Emmet, C. W., Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics (ERE), “Messiah”, Edinburg 1979, VIII, 570-581.


Ginsberg, Harold Louis, Encyclopedia Judaica (EJ), “Messiah”, Jerusalem 1972-1978, XI, 1407- 1417.


Holy Bible, New Revised Standard Version.


Jenni, E., “Messiah Jewish”, Interpreter’s the Dictionary of the Bible (IDB), Nashville 1988, III, 360-365.


Johnson, S. E. IDB, “Christ”, Interpreter’s the Dictionary of the Bible (IDB), Nashville 1988, 563-571.


Kutsal Kitap (Turkish Bible), Glossary, 1611-1622.


Ors, Hayrullah, Musa ve Yahudilik, Istanbul 1966.


Sandmel, Samuel ‘We Jews and Jesus’, New York 1965.


Strong, James The New Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible, “Son”, 986-992.


Werblowsky, R.J. Zwi Encyclopedia Judaica (EJ), “Christianity”, Jerusalem 1972-1978, V, 505-515.

[1] See Isaiah 44:6. [2] Harold Louis Ginsberg, , Encyclopedia Judaica (EJ), “Messiah” Jerusalem 1972-1978, XI, p. 1407- 1408; C. W. Emmet, Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics (ERE), “Messiah”, Edinburg 1979, VIII, p. 571; E. Jenni, Interpreter’s the Dictionary of the Bible (IDB),“Messiah Jewish”, Nashville 1988, III, p. 360. [3] C. W. Emmet, ERE, “Messiah”, VIII, p. 571. [4] S. E. Johnson, IDB, “Christ”, I, p. 563. [5] Samuel Sandmel, ‘We Jews and Jesus’, New York 1965, p. 21. [6] Sandmel, 31. [7] S. E. Johnson, IDB, “Christ”, I, p. 563; E. Jenni, IDB, “Messiah Jewish”, III, p. 360. [8] Harold Louis Ginsberg, EJ, “Messiah”, XI, p. 1407-8; John, 1:41. [9] E. Jenni, IDB, “Messiah Jewish”, III, p. 360. [10] C. W. Emmet, ERE, “Messiah”, VIII, p. 571. [11] ibid, 574. [12] Jenni, 360. [13] Psalms 132:17-18. [14] Psalms 89:27-29. [15] Psalms 89:3-4; 28-40; II Samuel 7:25-9, 22:51. [16] I Samuel 2:10. [17] Psalms 132:10-12. [18] I Samuel 16:12-13; 1. Kings, 1:39. [19] II Samuel 7:8-12; see parallel passages. : I Chronicles, 17:7-19. [20] Harold Louis Ginsberg, EJ, “Messiah”, XI, p. 1407-1408. [21] See I Chronicles 22:6-10; I Chronicles 28:4-7. [22] Emmet, 571-572. [23] Emmet, 572-573. [24] Emmet, 575. [25] Cf. I Chronicles 22:6-10. [26] I Chronicles 28:4-7. [27] I Kings 9:4-5. [28] II Chronicles 6:1-11. [29] Acts 2:30-5. [30] Acts 13:21-3. [31] Matthew 22:41-6; Psalms 110:1; see for parallels of it Mark 12: 35-7 Luke 20:41-4 Acts 2:33-6. [32] Acts 18:27-8. [33] See Matthew 1:1-17; see for parallel of it Luke 3:23-38. [34] Matthew 1:16; see other Luke 2:1-7. [35] Matthew 1:20. [36] See Mark 10:47. [37] See Matthew 9:27; Mark 10:47-8; Luke 18:38-9. [38] See Matthew 21:9; Mark 11:10. [39] Hosanna (Hb. ‘Hoshana’) word that means ‘save now’ in Aramaic, it is used to greet in the New Testament, see Kutsal Kitap, Glossary, p. 1615. [40] John 7:41-42, see also Luke 2:4-6. [41] Daniel, 7:13-14. [42] Emmet, 574. [43] Sandmel, 33- 34. [44] Sandmel, 48. [45] S. E. Johnson, IDB,“Christ”, I, p. 570. [46] Cf. Daniel, 7:13. [47] James Strong, The New Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible, “Son”, p. 986-92; See other Aydın, 44. [48] Matthew 24:30; 26:64; Mark 13:267; Luke 21:27. [49] Matthew 24:30; Mark 13:26; Luke 21:27. [50] Matthew 24:33. [51] Matthew 26:64; Mark 14:62. [52] Daniel 7:13-14. [53] R. J. Zwi Werblowsky, Encyclopedia Judaica, “Christianity”, V, p. 509. [54] E. Jenni, Interpreter’s the Dictionary of the Bible, “Messiah Jewish”, III, p. 362. [55] Jenni, 364. [56] Emmet, 573. [57] Matthew 5:34-5. [58] See Matthew 25:34; 25:40; 25:45. [59] Cf. Matthew 21:5-11; see for parallel passages Luke 19:28-40, John 12:12-19; See other Zechariah 9:9; Isaiah; 62:11; Psalms 118:25-26. [60] John 6:15. [61] See Matthew 21:9; Luke 1:32. [62] See Psalms 24:7-10. [63] See Zechariah 9:9. [64] Luke 2:14. [65] Matthew 21:15. [66] See John 12:23. [67] R.J. Zwi Werblowsky, Encyclopedia Judaica (EJ), “Christianity”, Jerusalem 1972-1978, V, p. 506. [68] Harold Louis Ginsberg, EJ, “Messiah”, XI, p. 1409. [69] Emmet, 570. [70] Sarıtoprak, 21. [71] R.J. Zwi Werblowsky, Encyclopedia Judaica,“Christianity”, V, p. 509. [72] Emmet, 575. [73] Aydın, 44. [74] Deuteronomy, 30:3-6. [75] Hayrullah Ors, 433-434. [76] Harold Louis Ginsberg, Encyclopedia Judaica, “Messiah”, XI, p. 1410. [77] David Berger, “The Jewish-Christian Debate in the High Middle Ages”, Philadelphia 1979, p. 366. [78] Emmet, 580.

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