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  • Rıdvan Demir

THE SECOND COMING OF JESUS A PROMISING— - BUT PROBLEMATIC TEACHING FOR MUSLIMS

Güncelleme tarihi: 24 Nis 2023


INTRUDUCTION


1. ORIGIN OF EXPECTED BELIEF

2. TERMINOLOGY IN THE HOLY BIBLE (OLD/NEW TESTAMENT)

3. ONES WHO DO BELIEVE IN JESUS’ DESCENT/RETURN

3. 1. QURAN (an-Nisa, 4/159 & al-Zukhruf, 43/61)

Jesus will return

3. 2. RELATED AHADITH

The Related Ahadith on Jesus are Mutawatir

4. ONES WHO DO NOT BELIEVE IN JESUS’ DESCENT/RETURN

4. 1. QURAN (an-Nisa, 4/159 & az-Zukhruf, 43/61)

Jesus will not return

4. 2. RELATED AHADITH

1. Resource Methodology

2. External Critics / Ithnad/Sanad/Report Chain

3. Claim of Tevatur:

4. Internal critics / Matin/Text

5. Epistemological Assessment

6. The problem of Ahad Ahadith (not mutewatir) which is not proof enough for creedal system of Islam

5. BEFORE RELIGIOUS TRADITIONS EFFECTED EXPECTED BELIEF OF ISLAM

Foreign Sources/Israiliyyat

6. JESUS WILL COMEBACK AS SHAS-I MANEWEE (IMMETERIAL

PERSONALITY, HIS LOVE, MERCY, AND JUSTICE)

Jesus’ shahs-ı manevi (His immaterial personality) will return

CONCLUSION: BIBLIOGRAPHY


INTRUDUCTION: In this paper I will take an Islamic perspective to discuss why the nuzul-e Isa return/descent of Jesus (pbuh) is problematic both among practicing Muslims and within Muslim scholarship. To do so I will rely primarily upon relevant passages and verses of the Quran as well as related Ahadith. This paper will not directly address the descent of Jesus to earth, nor will it attempt to resolve the deep theological problems surrounding this story, rather it will discuss reasons why this descent remains so problematic. To engage with this question I will begin by focusing on the origins of the belief in Jesus return, followed by a discussion of the word messiah and messiah understanding through both philological and linguistic analysis. Subsequently, I will argue that two verses in the Quran, both of which –[are subject to] multiple interpretations, as well as many related Ahadith are especially problematic for this issue, leading some scholars to believe in the descent of Jesus while others do not. I will also discuss related Hadith which are not Mutawatir, but Ahad which cannot serve as proof for creedal system of Islam. Mostly, I will use the word descent instead of return or comeback, because Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) has used the word descent in the Ahad Ahadith. Before concluding, I will focus on one of the views about the descent of Jesus (pbuh) that is shahsi manewi/symbolic meanings. This paper will not discuss Jesus’ crucifixion, death, and elevation, but will discuss his descent/return as it is articulated within Islam.

It is important to begin by stating that, while the Quran has not spoken clearly concerning the return of Jesus, the Ahadith concerning Jesus’ descent are very clear. This discontinuity has evoked certain theological disagreements, with Muslim scholars applying different methodologies in order to understand, interpret, and assimilate problematic information from Tafsir [1] Ahadith [2] and Fiqih. [3] Jesus’ birth and death are mentioned in the Quran. [4] Jesus’ death and return has been a topic discussed in Islam through history under the name Nuzul-e I’sa/ descent of Jesus. However, there is no clear or express verse about Jesus’ return before the apocalypse. [5] According to the general Islamic understanding, the resurrection of Jesus before the apocalypse, like all humanity, is unlike the pre-apocalypse Christian understanding of his resurrection.


1. ORIGIN OF EXPECTED BELIEF


The concept of an “expected savior/belief” is quite old. In history, almost all nations have, at various times, expected a savior amongst themselves, making it difficult to articulate with certainty the origins of such a common phenomenon originating amongst so many peoples. However, if we choose to focus on the ancient world we can see that wars, occurring constantly between apparent good and evil, serve as fertile ground for the birth of many mythologized figures representative of a compelling goodness; in other words, the characteristics of a savior. [6]

According to at least one theory, of which Alfred Jeremias is a proponent exponent, the ‘expected savior’ belief was born among the Sumerians, subsequently improved by Babylonian and Egyptian civilizations, and diffused into and through the contacts of these peoples. A competing theory challenges this historical approach, stating that each religion and nation has within its own psychological and sociological conditions, the grounds for its own variant on ‘expected savior’ beliefs. For Jeremias, expected savior belief had originated in Sumerians and Babylonians and that had affected the expected savior understanding of the other religious traditions and nations. On the other hand, in Semitic religions, particularly Judaism, expected savior belief appears to have transferred from Zoroastrianism. The Jewish version of the savior belief, that Yahweh will send a savior who will be king and establish a kingdom and in this kingdom of peace, even for wild animals, has been argued by some to have migrated into Jewish faith through two-hundred years of Jewish subjugation in Iran, resulting in close contact with Zoroastrians, who traditionally believed in the imminent arrival of a savior.

According to other scholars, however, the savior belief itself originates from Judaism, although this is not generally agreed upon. Before Christ, there are signs about this belief in news which has been informed by Prophets who lived in B.C. VIII. cc. (i.e. Prophet Isaiah). Nevertheless, the word messiah has not been used with technical meaning until B.C. I. cc. anywhere except Psalms.[7][7] There are many scholars who think that expectation belief started in the term of Prophet Abraham, B.C. 2066 For the German theologian, Julius Wellhausen (1844-1918), expected savior belief had started in Judaism after being affected by the mythology of Iran. Other Germans, the historians of religion Hermann Gunkell (1862-1932) and Hugo Gressman (1877-1927), known for their works on eschatology, defended the notion that savior belief had started before Israelite Prophets. Norwegian theologian, Sigmund Mowinckel’s view is clearer. According to him, firstly, expectation belief started to improve after the fall of King David’s kingdom [8]; secondly, the expectation subsequently passed from Judaism when Christians began to expect the coming of Jesus.

According to the generative view that each religion and nation independently developed the ‘expected savior’ belief within itself, these savior figures are to be found in both primitive and developed religious traditions in history, which each religion having a savior expectation within itself [9].

According to Fohrer, the word messiah had to the meaning of apocalyptic after Babylon Diaspora of Jews (BC. 537); according to Rehm and Zobel, one-two centuries before Christianity; according to Gressman, this word has been started to use in early era of Christianity. [10]

It is my belief that each theory contains truth, and thus that the expected savior beliefs within each religion have indeed been influenced and developed in the context of other faiths. There is truth to the idea that many religions posses their own epistemology of belief. It appears that some traditions have indeed been affected by the other tradition(s) they have had contact with, while some of them can indeed be said to have the origins of this belief within themselves. Judaism affected the Christianity with messiah belief while Judo-Christianity affected the messiah belief of Islam. After all, I can say, even after everything, each tradition has a shaping/style of this belief according to itself. Historical, political, psychological, sociological, even religious conditions, persecutions, wars, sufferings had became very effective.


2. TERMINOLOGY IN THE HOLY BIBLE (OLD/NEW TESTAMENT):

The word messiah transferred from ‘mashiha’ in Aramaic to ‘(ha)- mash’ihah’ in Hebrew. [11] The word Christ was used [12] in English. [13] The word messiah transformed as ‘christos-kristos’ in Greek [14] while as ‘masiih’ in Arabic. [15] This word as defined by the dictionary meaning of the word is ‘anointed, anointed one’ [16] or ‘king’ [17], (blessing one). The word messiah has been used in the meaning of apocalyptic in later term of Judaism.

In the Old Testament, there are many messiahs, with the primary usage reserved for King David and his son King Solomon. [18] Nevertheless, the word messiah has also been used to describe the ‘expected one,’ said to be a descendent of King David, [19] who is the focus of the text’s messianic expectations. The word has also been used for high clergy (Cohens, monks, priest, and the other religious leaders) [20], kings who are ascending the trone [21] , and even for Prophets [22] as a special title. In the course of time, the word messiah has been used for specifically one who will establish the temple of David in the mountain of Zion, Jerusalem, Israel. However, this belongs to a later usage of term. [23]

In the Old Testament, the expected [24] messiah will come from the lineage of King David. It is written that upon his arrival he will turn the whole nation of Jews into the Promised Land. He will also establish a temple in Zion in the name of Yahweh and will be very close to God, indeed like a son. His kingdom will carry on everlasting and the origins of his behavior will be squarely within justice and faithfulness. He will be the dominant political and religious leader, [25] and in his term of rule, it is written, even wild animals will become complaisant. [26] On the other hand, in the Old Testament, the term messiah [27] does not have the specificity of the later usage, never appearing to simply indicate a single person. [28]

The Jews who, having suffered much became increasingly engaged in the expectation belief. When they had more problems as a nation in many Diasporas they came to expect a savior who had malikamashiah (king-messiah in their Hebrew). Soon, the belief went, their Golden Age would come and everything would be better. Thus he was accepted as the representative of Yahweh on earth to the Jews and their suffering. [29] According to Martin Rehm, Lorenz Durr and H. J. Schoeps, messiah belief in Judaism originated from a longing for the kingdom of King David and promises to him from Yahweh who had said his kingdom would be everlasting. Thus, in Judaism, this belief could be considered as an example of an internally generated expectation belief. Interestingly, many Jews expected a messiah [30] during World War-II, illustrating a continuing value for this belief in the life of many Jewish people. [31]

The history of Judaism has had many false messiahs, perhaps stemming from the strength of this belief amongst the Jewish peoples. Some of them are Cretan Moshe (XII. cc.), Maneham Solomon (David Alroy), Abraham Abulayfa (XIII. cc.), Ashar Lamlain (XIV. cc.), Samuel Motto (XVI. cc.), Sabatay Sevi (XVII. cc./1626-1676), and Jacob Frank (1726-1791). To my knowledge, approximately once a century a figure has emerged claiming to be the savior and messiah for this people. [32] Today, reformist and liberal Jews tend to repudiate messianism, whilst Orthodox and Conservative Jews continue to accept and believe that a messiah [33] will come ‘even if late’.[34]

On the other hand, messiah belief is not apocalyptic or eschatological throughout Old Testament’s pages. This understanding belongs primarily to later uses of the term. [35]

In the New Testament era, a separation began between Christian and Jewish conceptions of the expectation belief, corresponding to the arrival of Jesus. Undoubtedly elements of Judaism have affected Christian beliefs, particularly about expected savior, and the understanding of the Early Christian term. This belief transferred from Jews to Christianity was assimilated into Christianity itself. Undoubtedly, however, son of man, son of David etc. are concepts which, though in the Old Testament, parallel New Testament passages and were interpreted by Jesus and his early followers themselves. This would represent a transmission of the savior-messiah concept passed on to Christianity. [36] Jesus accepted himself as messiah although he never declared it to others. He did not accept himself as messiah in a limited meaning, but accepted himself a messiah in what might be called a ‘large’ sense, as recognized in many places of the Old Testament by different key words. [37] (I.e. Messiah, Son of Man, Son of David, branch, horn, etc.). Interestingly, understandings of the messiah converged and separated throughout the historical course of both traditions (i.e. Son of Man or Son of David means “expected savior, the messiah”, but messiah who was expected by Jews had never divine nature. That was great problem between both traditions.)

In the New Testament, Gospel and letter authors used the messiah concept for many different meanings. Sometimes it has been used instead of Son of Man, Son of Mary, Son of David, Son of God, Savior, Lord, King, Expected One etc. So, I think it fair to say that the usage of the word is pretty rich in the New Testament. In this point, the important issue is that Jesus is messiah, the Expected One, according to New Testament writers and the way they interpreted Old Testament concepts that had affected them and also Christian dogmas about the messiah beliefs.

The last three chapters of the Book of Revelations (chapters 21, 22, and 23) mention the return of Jesus, as apocalyptic or eschatological newness. “He who was seated on the throne said, ‘I am making everything new’! ” [38] Carlos Madrigal summarizes this under seven headings:


1. A new order will establish a thousand year kingdom on earth. [39]

2. A new heaven and earth will be created. [40]

3. A kingdom of heaven will appear in full holiness and glory. [41]

4. Those who have salvation shall reach eternal heritage having been exalted by God. [42]

5. This will come with the removal and sin and its’ annihilation in death. [43]

6. There will be no temple, sun, or night... God shall become the center of universe. [44]

7. Life will renew itself for everlasting. [45]


In those chapters, the portrayed tableau is the realization of a promised salvation recognized everywhere in the Holy Bible. The last step in the unique meaning of all creedal systems of Christianity is that salvation is to live together with God in the kingdom of Heaven everlastingly. [46] According to Christian credo, when Jesus was raised up to heaven, to right of his God the Father he will return to earth for judging in era of apocalypse. Indeed, for the Christian tradition, this Second Coming of Jesus of Nazareth provides both soteriolo[r1] gical and eschatological dimensions. [47] All Christians believe he did die; he ascended and will come again.

Within this section, I lastly wish to express that the most insightful book regarding the return of Jesus is the book of Revelation in the New Testament. Thus this book give s great detail about Jesus’ returning with what could appear to be teetering close to myth. It is written that there will be a Great War between good and bad whose name is Armageddon. Ultimately, we learn, good will win in this Great War. The leader of bad, Satan, while eventually submit to the power of Jesus Christ. Heaven will be made into a New Jerusalem, while hell will annihilate all the bad. This imagery of salvation from fire and annihilation that is everlasting is a requirement for ultimate belief in Jesus and the Cross. The most common title of Jesus is Messiah/Christ in the New Testament. His return is certain according to Holy Scriptures and Christian scholars. This, of course, the Old Testament used the word messiah for many people (kings, prophets, priests etc.) as the New Testament used for only one person who is Jesus of Nazareth. In this meaning, there is contrast between the Hebrew Scriptures and the New Testament about using of word messiah. In the New Testament the victory of Christ comes at the end of history. [48] Instead of the first heaven and first earth, there will be a new heaven and a new earth. Hence the New Jerusalem comes down from heaven. [49] To the belief that Jesus will come soon, John the seer utters an impassioned “Amen. Come, Lord Jesus,” an echo of one of the oldest prayers [50] used by Christians. [51]

So far I have discussed a series of contrasts within the concept of the Messiah, centered on the issue of identity, as it exists within different religious cultures and periods. These differences of interpretation, as seen through the above discussion and linguistic analysis, mean that other religious traditions will inherit some of these contradictions and contrasts, leaving these religions with theological problems that are not, strictly speaking, of their own creation.

Now that I have introduced this problem, I will move onto the primary topic of this paper which concerns the inheritance of these contradictions, specifically as they center on the return of Jesus within Islam.



3. MUSLIMS WHO DO BELIEVE IN JESUS’ DESCENT/RETURN

3. 1. QURAN (an-Nisa, 4/159 & al-Zukhruf, 43/61)

According to scholars who believe in the return of Jesus, there is a chapter in the Quran entitled an-Nisa in which verse 159 gives some imagery on this topic. As is well known, there are two different interpretations of this verse. This verse: “And there is none of the People of the Book but must believe in him before his death; and on the Day of Judgment he will be a witness against them”.

If we accept that in “qable mawtihi”, the hi/him pronoun refers to Jesus, so before the death of Jesus, the people of the book will believe in Jesus. So that means Jesus will comeback. If we accept the “hi/him” pronoun refers to each person of the Ahl-i Kitab/the people of the book, then it means that before the death of each person of Ahl-i Kitab he/she will believe in Jesus. On the other hand, there is nobody that will not believe in Jesus before the death of each of Ahl-I Kitab. There is no consensus among interpreters of the Quran related to this verse. According to Ibn Kathir, these pronouns “bihi” and “qable mawtihi” signify Jesus as the first alternative and he prefers this meaning: when Jesus will descent to earth there are not any among the Ahl-i Kitab who will not believe in him. All nations will unite as one nation and Islam (the religion of Ibraahim as hanif/ monotheistic/tawheed) will be the unique religion. All Jews will believe in Jesus before the death of Jesus which means he will come back. [52]

The other verse about the descent of Jesus is in verse 61 from Chapter Zukhruf. This verse:

“And most surely, it is knowledge of the hour, therefore have no doubt about it and follow me: this is the right path”.

The problem is one of interpretative differences. About the pronoun “innahu”, scholars have two different understandings. Most scholars understood that the pronoun “hu/he” means Jesus. The other idea about this pronoun involves Prophet Muhammad or even the Quran, but these comments are opposite of general understanding with related verse. [53]

This verse’s part which is “le ‘ilmun li’s-sa’ati” has been read as “le ‘alemun” by shaz/exceptional reading. As well known, there are seven different reading styles for recitation of Quran which is called Qiraat-i sab’a. Shaz reading is different from those seven reading style. Thus this verse means that Jesus is a sign of apocalypse. There are also different interpretations about Jesus and apocalyptic relations. Therefore Jesus belongs to qiyamah/apocalypse as a sign/alamat/’alem or a knowledge belongs to him/’ilim. According to some interpreters Jesus’ miracles, which consist of his giving cure to the sick and his reviving the dead are ‘a sign’ of revival or that Jesus is a great sign of the apocalypse’, signs that many Ahadith mention. [54] Therefore the descent of Jesus refers to the opening of knowledge/‘ilmu’s-sa’ah (or knowing) about regarding the onset of doomsday.

It is possible to say that Jesus will descend according to both verses. Indeed, the coming of Jesus, or rather the moment of knowledge/‘ilm or sign/alamah for doomsday causes much clarity on the imagery of his coming back. It is somewhat difficult to say, however, that Jesus’ return is intimated in both verses which are not very clear. [55] It is possible to say that the return of Jesus is a rather difficult issue to discern among Muslims and Muslim scholars.

Jesus will return: These insights are promulgated by the Kalam scholars Ahl-i Sunnah (adherents or followers of the Prophet Muhammad/pbuh), by the Salafiyya (followers of early term) and Shi’a. Jesus rose with his body and soul (ruh ma’al casad) together when the people who denied Jesus wanted to kill him. He will descend before the apocalypse, believe in, and follow the revelation of the Prophet Muhammad. He will kill the Antichrist (Daggala) and bring justice to earth. Verses of the Qur’an and Hadith support this belief, and Salafiyya (followers of an earlier term) and Shi’a interpreted the verses as saying that Jesus was not killed by his enemies but was permitted to die a natural death by Allah.[56] The Qur’an uses the word tavaffi to mean Jesus was killed by Allah or according to Christianity, God will cause him to die for all. (Note past tense/siga-i maadi, however it is in the present tense/siga-i mudaari). Thus, according to this verse, Allah will kill Jesus before the apocalypse. He still lives and will return before the apocalypse, because other verses have said that as well. All the People of the Book (Ahl-i Kitab) will have faith in Jesus before his death, [57] and Jesus’ return will be explained as a sign of apocalypse. [58]

According to many mufassirs/interpreters, here (4:159), Ahl-I Kitab means not only Jews but Christians as well. Nevertheless, from a grammatical perspective, return of Jesus is certain, because before death of Jesus, each person will believe him. Grammatical/nahew of language shows that. Language and context (before and after this verse) supports this view. According to Abdullah Ibn Abbas, Abu Malik, Hasan, and Abdullah Ibn Zayd and the interpretation of Tabari, both damirs/pronouns are signs of Jesus. When Jesus descends to earth each person amongst the people of the book will believe in Jesus before their own death. In one Hadith, it reports from Abu Hurayrah that -this Hadith is a Bukhari Hadith- support for this view is very clear. Namely, both pronouns go to Jesus. The other view, that is from Ikrime ibn Abu Jahl who is a close companion of Prophet Muhammad, is that the first pronoun goes to Allah. However, this is a weak view, because there is no Hadith about this view. Jesus will have witness against Jews who denied Jesus and also Christians who accepted Jesus as a son of God. Interestingly, Alusi’s view changes about the return of Jesus in this point that is: the verse ends by “wa yawmal qiyamati yakuunu alayhim shahida.” Adverb (time) which is “Yawmal qiyamah”/day of judgment/apocalypse has brought something forward from “shahidan” and emphasizes it. Thus this verse ends with that: Jesus will witness against the people of the book in the Day of Judgment, but not this world. So this verse shows that Jesus will not comeback to earth in Alusi. [59]

In Zukhruf, 61:43, there are two kinds of reading for the word “a-l-m” in the statement, hence some different aspects of meaning: If it reads as the most common kind of reading as “al-ilm” then the meaning is that Jesus (the time of his descent) is an occasion to know about the time of the Doomsday. In this sense, Jesus represents one of the most profound “alaamah”/sign for “qiyaamah”/apocalypse.

If read as a very exceptional/shaz reading as “al-alam” then the meaning becomes that Jesus is a great sign for the time of the Doomsday.

In this verse, the word “ilim” has been used as an infinitive form for “mubalaga”/exaggeration art in literature. Thus the pronoun hi/he refers to the Quran. However, this view has been accepted as a weak view. Indeed, a view taking serious attention to the context of this verse is not available. According to the other view, which is very weak, the pronoun that is hi/he is associated with Prophet Muhammad. It is very clear that Prophet Muhammad died and there are absolutely no Muslims expecting his returning to earth.

Ibn Juzayy says that the first meaning of this verse is that Jesus is a sign or precondition of the Last Hour. We can confidently say that this verse indicates his return at the ‘End of Time’, because he lived six centuries before the Qur’an’s revelation. Therefore we cannot consider his first life as a sign of the Day of Judgment. The verse says that Jesus will return toward the end of time or, in other words, during the last period of time before the Day of Judgment. In that context, his return is a sign of the Hour’s imminent arrival. In Arabic, the expression “He is a Sign of the Hour” is Innahu la ‘ilmun li s-saa‘ati. Some say that the pronoun ‘hu’ (he/it) in this expression refers to the Qur’an. However, it is not a good interpretation. Furthermore, the preceding verse clearly refers to Jesus with the word hu:

He [Jesus] is only a servant on whom we bestowed our blessing and whom we made an example for the tribe of Israel. [60]

According to Cragg, clearly, the main sources of pervading Muslim perspectives about descent of Jesus (pbuh) and al-Dajjal/Daggala come from traditional lore. However as we read the related verse we used a similar interpretative tool. Chapter an-Nisa 4:159 says about Ahl-i Kitab/people of the book will believe in him before his death. Hence this death means after his return.

According to Cragg, Chapter Mariam 19:33 mentions from Jesus who is still ‘alive’. In Chapter Zukhruf 43:57-64 speaks of ‘knowledge of the hour’ between two clear references to Jesus. Many commentators have taken the crucial pronoun about ‘knowledge of the hour’ to refer to Jesus. For some scholars, the verse refers in the pronoun to the Quran and not to Jesus [61], but it is not the general understanding. Nevertheless, it is exactly a difficult and problematic topic, the second coming of Jesus in Islam according to both related verses. Both sides have to show their evidences to the other side which I will discuss below.


3. 2. RELATED AHADITH

According to many Ahadith, when Jesus will return he will pray behind the Mahdi. On the other hand, there are some reports from Abdullah ibn Abbas that Prophet Muhammad said Prophet Jesus will stay 7 years or 33 years or 40 years on earth. According to ones who believe in second coming of Jesus, the differences of those Ahadith originate from that: he will stay 40 years altogether, both before and after his resurrection. Thus he lived 33 years and he will comeback and will live another 7 years on earth. [62]

According to Tabari, Ibn Kathir, Abu Hayyan, Calaluddin as-Suyuti, Shawkani, Kattani, Kashmiri and Zahid al-Kawthari these related Ahadith are Mutawatir. According to them although these related Ahadith are Ahad, all of them mean that they are Mutawatir. On the other side scholars who believe in Jesus death and that he will not descend to earth, these related Ahadith are not Mutawatir, but all of them are Ahad meaning they are not proof for creedal system in Islam. Therefore they interpret these related verses and Ahadith from a different perspective and therefore arrive at a different understanding. [63]


The Related Ahadith on Jesus are Mutawatir:

The Ahadith relating to Jesus’ second coming are reliable (mutawatir). Some Muslim scholars who are traditionalist share this view. Tawatur/mutawatir is defined as news which has many different channels of transmitters or authorities and to unite it as one authentic transmission is impossible. [64]

News of mutawatir, is news on which many transmitters agree. According to the tradition, it is unlikely for so many transmitters to reach a consensus on a lie. This being the situation, if statements and meanings agree with one another, then this is called mutawatir lafzi (verbal mutawatir). If there is common meaning yet a contradiction between statements (words), then it is called mutewatir-i manawi (mutawatir by meaning).

On the other hand, in his Al-Tasrih fi ma Tawatara fi Nuzul al-Masih, the Hadith scholar Muhammad Anwar Shah Kashmiri writes that the Ahadith about Jesus’ second coming are all reliable. Jesus’ second coming is one of the ten great signs of the Last Day, and many Muslim scholars have dealt with the subject in great detail. When all of these views are considered carefully, it becomes apparent that there is a consensus on this event. [65]

The mutawatir in the Ahadith regarding Prophet Jesus’ descent is mutawatir-i manawi. Aside from the fact that each one of the sahih and Hasan Ahadith may indicate different meanings, they all agree upon Prophet Jesus’ descent. This is actually a fact which is impossible to deny for a person who is well acquainted with the knowledge of Hadith. The Ahadith related to the appearance of Mahdi and Dajjal and Prophet Jesus’ second coming is tawatur; it is certainly not an issue that is considered doubtful by experts on the Hadith literature. The reason why some who deal with Ilm al-Kalam/systematic theology of Islam agree that it is essential to have faith in the Ahadith related to the signs of Doomsday yet have doubts about whether some of these Ahadith are Mutawatir or not, is their inadequate knowledge about Ahadith.

These are narrated from the Messenger of God as Mutawatir and in these Ahadith, there are explanations regarding how and where Prophet Jesus will appear. The authentic and Mutawatir Ahadith about Prophet Jesus return to Earth in his noble body is immune to any opposing interpretations. Consequently, everyone with the smallest speck of faith and fairness has to believe in Prophet Jesus’ second coming; only those who oppose God’s Book, His Messenger and Ahl al-Sunnah may deny Prophet Jesus’ second coming to Earth. The Ahadith that reveal Jesus’ second coming in the ‘End Times’ as a sign of the Last Day are found in the main Hadith source books, such as those by al-Bukhari and Muslim. Some of these are as follows: “It (the Day of Judgment) will not come until you see ten signs,” and (in this connection) he mentioned the smoke, the Dajjal, the Beast, the rising of the Sun from the west, the descent of Jesus son of Mary. The other related Ahadith are these: By Him in Whose Hands my soul is, son of Mary. [66] (Jesus) will shortly descend amongst you people as a just ruler. [67]


4. ONES WHO DOES NOT BELIEVE IN JESUS’ DESCENT/RETURN

4. 1. QURAN ( an-Nisa, 4/159 & az-Zukhruf, 43/61)

According to many scholars who are not traditionalist, but modernist, Jesus will not descend according to both related verses. In the translation of Muhammad Asad, related verses are translated as follows:

“Yet there is not one of the followers of earlier revelation who does not, at the moment of his death, grasp the truth about Jesus; and on the day of resurrection he (himself) shall bear witness to the truth against them.”

In the footnote of this verse is that: “Who does not believe in before his death? ” According to this verse, all believing Jews and Christians realize at the moment of their death that Jesus was truly a Prophet of God-having been neither an impostor nor “the son of God” (Zamakhshari). [68]

The other related verse is this:

“And, behold, this (divine writ) is indeed a means to know (that) the last hour (is bound to come); hence, have no doubt whatever about it, but follow me: this (alone) is a straight way.”

In the footnote of this verse is that:

“whereas most of the commentators regard the pronoun ‘Hu’ in ‘innahu’ as relating to Jesus and, consequently, interpret the above phrase as “he is indeed a means to know [i.e., an indication of the coming of] the last hour”, some authorities –e.g., Qatadah, al-Hasan al-Basri and Said ibn Jubayr (all of them quoted by Tabari, Baghawi and Ibn Kathir)- relate the pronoun to the Quran, and understand the phrase in the sense adopted in my rendering. The specific mention of the last hour in the above context is meant to stress man’s ultimate responsibility before the creator and, therefore, the fact that worship is due to him alone: and so this parenthetic passage follows logically upon the mention of the false deification of Jesus.” [69]

According to scholars who do not believe in the descent of Jesus, chapter an-Nisa verse 159 does not mention descent of Jesus. Thus this verse that includes the word “mawtihi” namely hi pronoun means each person of Ahl-i Kitab/the people of the book. So this verse means there is no person before the death of all who are from the people of the book, but will believe in Jesus as servant and messenger/rasul of Allah. Before they die - each person from the people of the book (Jews and Christians) will understand that Jesus is not son of God, but he is a servant and messenger. When a curtain which is a barrier for their eyes is removed they will know some truths. [70]

The other related verse which is chapter az-Zukhruf verse 61 is that he is a knowledge which shows apocalypse. Scholars who do not believe in the descent of Jesus interpret this verse in that: the hu/he pronoun refers to Jesus, it means rather that Jesus was created without father, he revived dead people, and then he is a sign/alamah of apocalypse. On the other side, for some scholars, this verse is a sign that the pronoun hu/he has to be interpreted as the Quran or Prophet Muhammad. Nevertheless, the context of this verse is not available for these interpretations. Ibn Kathir also accepts and supports this comment. [71]

Jesus will not return: Mu’tazila Kalam scholars (as well as contemporary Sunni scholars such as Ahmad Amin, Abdulkarim al-Hatib, Abu Rayya, and Muhammad Izzad Darwaza) agree. When the enemies of Jesus wanted to kill him, Allah raised the soul of Jesus to Himself when Jesus died with a natural death. This is the clear meaning of the Qur’an. On this concept, the Qur’an has used the past tense concerning Jesus. [72] Therefore, it did not say that he will die in the future, but it meant that Allah permitted him to die in Aali Imran Chapter. [73] Nevertheless, followers have misinterpreted this verse. According to this verse, the People of the Book will have faith (belief) in Jesus before Jesus’ death according to adherents of the return of Jesus/Nuzul-e Isa. This verse has been misunderstood to say that the People of the Book will have faith before their own deaths and to say that Jews are also included. Besides, the verse in az-Zukhruf Chapter [74] has been misinterpreted to say that Jesus’ return is a sign of the apocalypse because this verse can be read in two different ways in the science of Quran’s reciting (Ilm al- Qiraah.) [75] In this verse, letters ‘ayn, lam, and mim can be read as “ ‘alaamah” (sign) and as “ilim” (knowledge/enlightenment/science), so this verse explains absolutely and clearly that the apocalypse will happen. There is certain detail about this matter which makes it rather difficult to doubt. As the Prophet Muhammad is the Last Prophet, the return of Jesus to the earth might appear rather contradictory or impossible. Otherwise, this belief would contradict the principle of the Seal/last one of the Prophets (Hatm-i Nubuvvah).

It is clear that the descent/second coming of Jesus (pbuh) has serious problems although it had been promised by Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). I will now discuss related Ahadith (!) which are pretty problematic.


4. 2. RELATED AHADITH (!) AND THEIR CRITICISM

Societies that are unsuccessful to fulfill their desires react in two ways. They either rebel or they except divine help. The latter is called Messianism which is ‘expectation’ belief. In the Muslim world, the idea of divine help started in Amawi times, when the citizens were discontent. The idea of the savior, called Mahdi, has since become popular in the Muslim world. Another savior that Muslims believe in is the Messiah. Muslims believe that Messiah did not die, but Allah has ascended him to the heaven. They also believe that after the appearance of Mahdi, Messiah will descend from the heaven at the white minaret of Umayya Mosque in Damascus, perform prayer behind Mahdi, become subject to Prophet Muhammad’s (pbuh) religion, die after the 40th day of his descent, his funeral prayer will be performed by Muslims and his body will be buried next to Prophet Muhammad’s. This belief has been adapted or rejected by many Muslims for centuries, but a real critical approach has never been prevalent. [76]

The verses and Ahadith that are related to this issue have not since been investigated critically. Most interpretations rely on the belief that Messiah will return. Verses in the Quran are only philologically interpreted in both ways which take either positive or negative approaches. Therefore, the only other evidence becomes Hadith. However, these Ahadith can be contrasting with each other. Interestingly, during history, nobody had criticized them by using a systematic analysis.


1. Resource methodology:

The Ahadith related to the descent of Jesus the Messiah provide an idea which is really important. If we focus on who reported these Ahadith we can see that most of the persons who provided the Ahadith are not close friends or Companions of Prophet Muhammad except for Abdullah b. Masud and Anas b. Malik. If the descent of Jesus was part of compulsory Islamic belief used to determine whether or not one is Muslim or kafir/unbeliever, these Ahadith should have been brought about by Prophet Muhammad‘s closer friends. Moreover some of the reporters/rawis were very young at Prophet Muhammad‘s time, which would make memorization of the Ahadith also doubtful. Also some of them were said to have adapted these Ahadith from Jews and Christians. Also the fact that this topic is not present or present in a few Ahadith in the early Hadith resources increases the doubts even more.

If we focus on the books which relate to the second coming of Jesus we find that some are not even Hadith books (history, tabaqaat, carh, ta’dil, tafsir, and dalail etc). Some of them include daif/weak and even mawdu/false Ahadith. On the other hand there are related Ahadith in the early Hadith sources. If messiah/expectation belief is from main faith principles, early scholars would have placed them in the most important Hadith collections, under the most important articles of faith, which are six. (I.e. belief in Allah, Books, Prophets, Angels, Hereafter, Destiny). According to source methodology of Hadith science some Ahadith (!) seriously are problematic, especially as a proof for creedal system of Islam. Clearly, at least, these Ahadith are Ahad , but not Mutawatir which I will express these concepts below. [77]


2. External Critics Ithnad / Sanad/Report Chain:

The reliability of the reporters/rawis -other than the resource reporters- who brought about the Ahadith about the descent of Prophet Jesus and the ithnad/report chain they have formed are problematic. Although not all reporters are unreliable, there are reporters that are even called to be fake/false. For example, although it is said that one Hadith is not true in Kashmiri‘s book which is “at-Tasrih fi maa tavatara fi nuzul-al-masih” and he collected 178 Ahadith about descent of Jesus. This book is the most known of history of Hadith about related Ahadith (!). Some related Ahadith were raised to Hasan/Good Hadith (one grade lower of Sahih/Truth Hadith). Some reporters supported this Hadith because of the fact that it does not contradict other Ahadith. It is hard to understand why Kashmiri’s book includes the Ahadith whose reliability has been confessed to be weak or false. The related book that contained these Ahadith is the book by Kashmiri. Kashmiri and his students claim that the Ahadith regarding the resurrection of Jesus are reliable, giving the total of one hundred and seventy eight Ahadith collected on this issue. However, it is important to realize that this is not evidence but a claim. After all, not all of these Ahadith can be attributed to Prophet Muhammad. Approximately sixty of these one hundred and seventy eight Ahadith are Mursal, Mawquf and Maqtu Ahadith which means problematic according to Hadith criteria. The other third of these Ahadith are not from Prophet Muhammad, but his companions who are not stringent and obligatory reporters for believing about creedal system of Islam. Therefore I can say that some of these Ahadith are not reliable while some of them are Ahad, but never Mutawatir. Interestingly, Kashmiri himself confesses that some of them are Daif/Weak and Mawdu/False Ahadith in his own book. Some of these Ahadith are Mursal, and there are some reporters/rawis who are Matruk/had forsaken and Machul/Unknown in these Ahadith’ reported chain/ithnad. [78]


Claim of Tawatur:

Some Muslim scholars who believe in second coming of Jesus have claimed that these kinds of Ahadith are Mutawatir and therefore we must believe in them. Those scholars have not hesitated to show an abundance of Ahadith as a proof. According to them if some Ahadith are so much in the same topic it must mean they are Mutawatir although they were Ahad Ahadith. If those Ahadith were Ahad, in this case, they have claimed that Ahad Ahadith are proof as certain knowledge for creedal system of Islam. [79]

In this point I want to express what the technical meanings of Mutawatir and Ahad[HSV2] [r3] Ahadith are. As well known, the books of classical Hadith methodology separate all Ahadith which tradition of Prophet Muhammad two parts according to their rawi/reporter numbers, with the other word their widespread names called as Ahad and Mutewatir. Ahad Ahadith means the Hadith is reported one/ones and they are not the same degree with Mutewatir, namely Ahad Hadith is a Hadith which can not be able to reach to Mutewatir Hadith. Contrast of guessed, Ahad Hadith does never means a Hadith which has been reported only one rawi. Mutawatir Hadith means -in classic Hadith books- that news that is reported from a community that their uniting is impossible on the same lie to the other community that has the same character. Mutawatir Hadith is very common known in each generation. The other character of Mutawatir is that they are outside of the boundary of Ahadith science. Indeed, Mutawatir is certain knowledge and is not necessary to examine their truth. The other reason that Mutawatir is outside of the boundary of Hadith criteria is that there are a lot Rawis of Mutawatir Ahadith, so to account or examine their truth is exact impossible and also it was perfectly does not necessity.

The perfect example of Mutawatir are those: text of Quran, practice of Athan, pray at five time for each day, festival prays, practice of Friday service, practice of Hajj/pilgrimage, Prophet Muhammad’s parents who were Abdullah and Amina, Prophet Muhammad’s birth place and date that in Mecca and in 571. Nobody denied those knowledge that they Muslim or non-Muslim during history. Nobody objected to those ideas at the time. Those kind of practices that were realized in each generation was sahabi/companions of Prophet Muhammad in Medina that were 20.000 and at last year of Prophet were 100.000 (probably 114.000 or 120.000) and Tabiun/next generation of Sahabi, Companion who were more and much more in each generation. Nobody had any doubt of this knowledge or even the machinations needed to create it. Even today, millions of Muslims have the same practice which eventually became the heritage of companions of Prophet to Ummah/community of Islam. [80][80]

I now want to return to some Ahadith about the return of Jesus. As seen on previous charts, the numbers of rawis/reporters of related Ahadith are 33 in each chain. Can we assume their uniting on the same truth that these 33 people who are not within the Tawatur/Mutawatir? I believe that it is possible for this number which to unite on the same lie. Indeed, if we rethink Mutewatir practice of Prophet Muhammad term and later 33 rawis shows as pretty risky. Even, ones who have claimed that Ahadith related nuzul-e Isa/descent of Jesus are Mutewatir-i Manawe/by meaning (not Mutewatir-I Lafzi/verbal) which some of them are contrast each other. These Ahadith uniquely point to the descent of Jesus. Therefore we can not affirm that they are Mutewatir. Nevertheless, in Mutewatir, main principle is certain, clearness and absolute knowledge, just like mathematics, there is no risk. Whereas, nuzul-e Isa Ahadith has some oppositions in their internal details. I will discuss this problem below, under the headings of internal critics. On the other hand, logically, if a Hadith has report chain (sanad), this Hadith can not be absolute Mutawatir. If we account rawi number which means this Hadith is Ahad, but never Mutawatir. [81][81]

As well known, Ahad Ahadith separate three (with Mawdu that they are false, four) sahih/truth, Hasan/Good, Daif/Weak. Ahad Ahadith are conviction for us that they are sentences/tradition of Prophet Muhammad, but not certain. Ahad Hadith is not as certain as ‘two times two makes four’, unlike mathematics. Therefore we can not say that Ahad Ahadith mean Mutewatir. Moreover, if we think some Ahad Ahadith which are Mawdu/False we can never say that Ahadith of nuzul-e Isa is not Mutewatir. Although most of them are Ahad. [82][82]

2. Internal critics / Matin/Text:

As well known, all Hadith are composed of two parts. First part is a report chain/sanad and matin/text that they are real part of the tradition of Prophet. Textual part of a Hadith is more worthy and therefore is more readily called upon than the reporting components. Meaninglessly, during history of Hadith, many scholars had focused on the reporting part for a Hadith critics, and had ignored the textual aspects, particularly in problematic issues, i.e. nuzul-e Isa Hadith. When a careful reader attempts to unravel Hadith as a running compilation, he/she can see clearly that related Hadith (in fact some reports that are supposed Hadith) contrast each other. I believe that matin/text critics is important at least just like report cain/sanad critics. Before internal critics I would like to remind the reader at this moment that contradictions that are in Ahadith never originate from the Prophet, but from rawi and their reporting styles. To contrast all Ahadith (probably except for a couple of them) are not Lafzi (verbal/original sentence of Prophet, exact the same from his mouth), but Manawi (/by meaning are reported from mouth of reporters). Even, we will see clearly that this kind of sentences can not said by a Prophet who had a revelation/inspiration from Allah. [83][83]

Now, I will focus on internal critics. I will show that these Ahadith have not addressed to modern people and next generations. I.e. most famous Hadith in related ones and mentioned above. [84][84] According to this Hadith when Jesus descent to earth he will gather tribute, whereas there is no to gather tribute today. According to some Hadith Prophet and his Companions send peace (say greetings) to Jesus, but Jesus will comeback before apocalypse. This is a contradiction with some Ahadith which declare return of Jesus before apocalypse. Therefore I can say reporters had reflected their historical events and expectations from their perspectives.

The other great problem is where Jesus will descent. If we focus on related Ahadith which express where Jesus will descent on earth we can see the problem. Related Ahadith express that in white minaret or white bridge which is in east of Dimashq (today Damascus), Jerusalem, Damascus, Jordan or headquarters of Muslims. It is possible to originate these contradictions from a Prophet? Is this much better if we can say Jesus will not comeback according to Islam than Prophet had contradictions in his mind. Which one is much better? Indeed, these Ahadith (!) can be originating bad memorize of reporters or originate from good indeed that is to service to Islam or originate from bad indeed. Extremely interesting that some Ahadith mention minaret which there did never exist in the term of Prophet. When civilization of Islam improved after Prophet Muslims developed in architecture and established many mosques which were similar of today’s ones. [85][85]

According to some Hadith (!) the breath of Jesus will reach and kill man to the last point which the eye can see it. This narration seems pretty mythological. This narration is superior to miracles. The other problem is why Jesus will kill man by his breath. As well known, he is a Prophet of mercy in Islam.

There are some Ahadith which refer to the Byzantine Empire. These Ahadith reflect reporters’ term with their reports. Historical perspective is very clear. I.e. when Jesus descent to earth Greeks will come A’mak and Da’biq. The other riwayah/report have claimed that an arm will move from Medina or Halab/Aleppo. This arm will march toward Greeks (Byzantine), after that they will conquest Istanbul, after all Jesus descent to earth. Today, there is neither Byzantine nor arm to be March over to Byzantine. Long time ago, in 1453, Muslim-Turks have been conquest Istanbul and Jesus had not already been descent to earth. We have three alternatives. These Ahadith mention from future which before of apocalypse or these Ahadith are not Ahadith or they are metaphoric expressions. Anyhow, at least, basically, I can say that many rawis reflected their historical events or popular/actual events of their era. I.e. Byzantine Empire which was one of the two super powers of the world in that era.

In the other related Ahadith which is in also Kashmiri’s book, a fire which will originate from Hadramawt will take ahead of it Muslims, this fire will drive and gather to Damascus (the land of Syria today). Besides, man will go walk and by on camels there. Interestingly, main emphases to Damascus, not Mecca and Medina which are Holy Land for Muslims. Probably, the problem is politics; Amawis do want emphases significant of themselves over all Muslims at that time, after Prophet. The other problem is transportation vehicles in our modern century. On the other side, in the term of second coming of Jesus Arabians will be minority, most of them will be in Bayt’ul Maqdis. In this reports, Arabians will fight with the arm of Dajjal/Daggala. It is strange to use of reporters’ word Arabians instead of Muslims. As well known, many Ahadith had used the word Muslims instead of ethnic race about this war. This Hadith just like seems Arabic nationalistic. Am I so wrong? Or am I so skeptic? According to some reports tribe of Quraysh will retake its missing reign. Today, there is no neither Quraysh nor its reign. Perhaps, this kind of Hadith could be significant, but what does this mean for us today? In the term of Second coming of Jesus cow and ox will be expensive, but horse will be cheap, because cow and ox will use for farming. [86][86] Jesus will not already comeback, and modern people have used modern technology for farming. According to some related Ahadith Jesus will order for becoming Caliphate/Imam of al-Muq’ad after death of him. Thus al-Muq’ad will be leader that he is from tribe of Ban-i Tamim. Today is there Ban-i Tamim tribe, who was al-Muq’ad? How many population of Ban-i Tamim? Why Jesus will choose him instead/after of himself? What is the specific superiority of al-Muq’ad? I believe this kind of Ahadith (!) will be more ridiculous for next generations more than today are man. The afflictive one is that many Muslim scholars have still expected Jesus, i.e. al-Kashmiri, Muhammad Shefi, al-Kawtheri, etc. these scholars have claimed with passion the second coming of Jesus and have blamed some ones who do not believe returning of him as a kafir/unbeliever. That is afflictive. I want to ask why? The answer is so clear: dogmatism and mentality which is imitator and conservative traditionalist. [87][87]


3. Epistemological Assessment:

There are three alternatives for all reports about second coming of Jesus logically as knowledge value just like all news. 1. It is correct/truth absolutely. 2. It is lie/wrong absolutely. 3. Both alternatives is possible hence, some of them are truth while some of them are lie. It must be Mutawatir for accepting related Ahadith as absolute truth which are not like that. Most of ulama/scholars accept that only Mutawatir news can be absolute knowledge and can be proof for creedal system of Islam/Kalam.

Related Ahadith are absolute Ahad Hadits, not Mutewatir. These reports’ third are Mawquf, Mursal, and Maqtu Ahadith. If we remember again, some of rests of them are Daif/Weak or Mawdu/False Ahadith. As well known, Kashmiri’s book includes 178 Ahadith (!). It is really few Ahadith are Sahih/Truth which all of them are Ahad. Thus nobody can blame some ones who do not believe to the second coming of Jesus. Because these Ahadith are not so much and it is not Mutewatir. Faith which epistemological perspective is the most important issue for each tradition and serious issue.

Of course, all the time this problem can discuss and debate among both sides, but this topic is never creedal problem in Islam. Anymore, Muslim scholars have to wake up and ask to themselves that why did we never ask some questions about second coming of Jesus during history of Quran? Why did we believe in return of Jesus? That was Islamic belief which it is originated from Quran and Mutawatir Hadith? If it was a belief in Islam why early scholars did not put among six faith principle? Interestingly, many Muslim scholars are still insisting that he will descent to earth as lieder of Muslims. As reference, they have showed that everything is possible and very easy for God. However, they have forgotten that it is different possibility/imkaan while it is different occurrence/vuquu. Of course, Jesus can comeback to earth, because Allah is Qadir (have full power), but he is Hakiim (have full wisdom) at the same time. Muslims believe in aql/reason as much as naql/report. Allah says in Quran: “walantajida lisunnatillahi tabdiilaa.”/“(Such has been) the practice (approved) of Allah already in the past: no change wilt thou find in the practice (approved) of Allah. [88][88] Some traditionalist Muslim scholars can claim possibility, but subuut/happening/realization is completely is different than possibility. Allah is full Hakiim/has wisdom. This claim damages to Islam and Ahadith, mostly. Dogmatism is the serious problem for all traditions in our modern world for our modern world. Of course, this article’s aim is not attack to Ahadith. I believe in Ahadith as secondary sources of Islam after Quran. However, to claim is totally wrong Ahadith which are Ahad one as a main source of Islam for creedal system. Prophet Muhammad says ummah/community does never unite over mistake. Indeed, We Muslims have not consensus in this issue.

6. The problem of Ahad Ahadith (not mutewatir) which is not proof enough for creedal systems of Islam:

For many Muslim scholars, descent of Jesus can be possible , but never obligatory for God or for Muslims who have to believe in return of him. This might be an independent clause for Muslims. Jesus died a natural death, was not raised by Allah with both his body and soul, and his descent to earth as a human before the apocalypse is impossible. These two insights’ differences originate from reports ascribed to Prophet Muhammad. Consequently, it is impossible to believe Jesus will return because when the Qur’an expresses a thing clearly it cannot be contradicted. Also, according to Kalam/systematic theology of Islam, belief cannot build on doubt or suspicion. There is not yakin (certain information/knowledge) in Islam concerning the raising of Jesus and his descent from heaven to earth. Even Tabari, Ibn Kathir[89][89], Kashmiri, and M. Zahid Kawthari like other scholars of Islam say: these Ahadith are Mutawatir. Actually these Ahadith consist from Haber-i Vahid (Ahad news, not certain knowledge until Mutawatir.) Islamic beliefs could not build on these kinds of Ahadith.[90][90] Beliefs that Jesus was sacrificed for sin of people and will return as expected king to found the kingdom of God belongs only to Christian belief systems. [91][91]

Notably, there is detailed information in different books (in except Kutub-u Sitte [92][92]) concerning the place where Jesus will return, his actions, life and death in this world. Nevertheless in these different Ahadith, about time of Jesus’ return, means of return, how long he stayed the number of followers, his actions and jobs, and his sepulcher place. These Ahadith contradict each other. Therefore, the Muhtelif’ul Hadith have been applied. [93][93]

M. Hayri Kirbasoglu who in his article “Criticism of Ahadith that Jesus descended from heaven” has examined Ahadith according to the research methodology, sanad (chain/ reported part of Hadith) criticize, matin (sentence part of Hadith) Mutewatir allegation, foreign research/ Israiliyat, and it could not reach Mutewatir degree and it has stayed in Ahad degree Ahadith. Nevertheless he has also examined in Ahad degree Ahadith that he has stated they are not certain knowledge and could not accepted as proof according to Kalam/systematic theology of Islam. Thus he has espoused that denial of the return of Jesus does not mean that one is an unbeliever, because belief can only be constituted with Mutewatir knowledge that it was explained above. Ultimately, if whoever does not believe the return of Jesus it does not said for these people who are unbeliever /kafir according Kalam. [94][94] It was like expressed before, when Muslims encounter/meet with Christian culture to enter the Islam beliefs of Nuzul-u Isa (return of Jesus) belief is probable. [95][95] All Muslims shall believe the death of Jesus, because Allah has been told in verse 34 of the Anbiya chapter in Qur’an. No one had eternal life before Muhammad according to this verse, all people died before him, and he (Prophet Muhammad) also will die one day. Today, we know that the Prophet Muhammad has died, and Jesus also has died. According to Qiyas/comparison, logically, both of them or any Prophet will not comeback. [96][96]

On the other hand, the Qur’an expressed very clearly that Injil/ the Gospel has been affirmed by the Tavrat/the Torah.[97][97] The Quran says that:

“And in their footsteps We sent Jesus the son of Mary, confirming the Law that had come before him: We sent him the Gospel: therein was guidance and light, and confirmation of the Law that had come before him: a guidance and an admonition to those who fear Allah.” [98][98]

Concerning this concept, the Qur’an has affirmed earlier books, and there are many subjects concerning Gospel in the Qur’an. In this situation, it is impossible that the Qur’anic understanding can return to the beginning. While the Qur’an has spoken about Gospel and Torah, we cannot think about the return of Jesus. All scriptures before the Qur’an are informative, but only the Qur’an has told us to not expect a savior for the future. Because the Qur’an says:

“Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but (he is) the Messenger of Allah, and the last (seal) of the Prophets: and Allah has full knowledge of all things.” [99][99]

In several different places, the Quran talks of Jesus’ death and his being raised to Allah. In this sense, words and verses will be discussed as they refer to and give details concerning Jesus’ end. Key concepts are interpreted according to different Islamic scholars and historic thoughts. If we understand how superstitious beliefs are introduced into Islamic understanding in the early periods, we will be able to clearly see that Jesus’ return is impossible according to Islamic creedal system.

The word masiih [100][100] / messiah is repeated eleven times in nine places in the Quran. I’sa [101][101] / Jesus is a name, and Messiah is a title/name of Jesus in the Quran. The Qur’an does mention Jesus’ birth and death;[102][102] however, this does not mean that Jesus lives now.

The apocalypse in Islam is the end time when all people are resurrected. Therefore, general understanding of Islamic scholars, who believe in the second coming of Jesus, is that he will come back before apocalypse. Nevertheless, as well known, in Christian theology, Jesus is in heaven present and he is sitting in the right of God the Father of him and he will come back for judge. As is also well known, Jesus came to save mankind the first time, but will come back a second time to judge those who did not believe in him. There are two reasons the notion of Jesus being elevated to heaven and his prospect of returning entered Islam. First, the commentaries of the Quran (Mufassirs) coming from Christian and Jewish converts brought to Islam the interpretations from their beliefs and cultures of an expected messiah. Muslims call these non-traditional and sometimes baseless kinds of thought and interjected beliefs, Israiliyyat.

The second reason are the mentions of Jesus’ return, as purported by the Hadith. However, each Hadith requires meticulous investigation, and opposed to what is commonly believed, only a few of the Ahadith regarding the return of Jesus are accurate. [103][103] Indeed, in different Ahadith, Abu Hurayrah reported that Jesus would descend to the earth as a sign of the apocalypse. These Ahadith were reported by Abu Hurayrah with different chains (sanads or “ways”) in Bukhari, Muslim, and Tirmizi: “Abu Hurayrah said, I swear to Allah who my soul in his hand that it is soon a time in which The son of Mary, Jesus will come down as a just Imam/leader, will break the cross, will kill the pig and will remove the jizyah/tax. At that time, possession/wealth insomuch that will become many nobody do not accept. Only one sajdah/prostrating will be beneficial more than that which are in this world and within of it.” [104][104] Allah has clearly explained that Jesus’ body died in verse 55 of the Aali Imran Chapter and verse 117 of the al-Maidah Chapter. Jesus was not killed by others. Allah ended Jesus’ life naturally. Therefore, his immaterial degree was raised when his soul was raised as the souls of all Prophets are raised by Allah, who prefers all good things for His Prophets. In the Qur’an, it is declared that Jesus (pbuh) will die. Nobody gave eternal life before Muhammad (pbuh) in the 34th verse of the al-Anbiya Chapter, which informs that Muhammad will die a day to prove that Jesus has died, [105][105] according to Ilyas Celebi, author of the Encyclopedia of Islam material on Isa (Jesus) which concerns the death of Jesus under the heading of ilm al-Kalaam (belief system/credo).


5. BEFORE RELIGIOUS TRADITIONS EFFECTED EXPECTED BELIEF OF ISLAM

Foreign Sources/Israiliyyat:

I this heading i will demonstrate some similar thoughts about expectation belief in early religious traditions which are Judaism and Christianity. The similarities and parallelism is extremely shocked. Ahadith which are related with nuzul-e Isa/descent of Jesus (pbuh), probably has been affected from Judaism and Christianity in that region, peninsula of Arabia.

Some Old Testament verses and some Ahadith are very parallel i.e. Isaiah (BC VIII. cc) book of the Old Testament. I.e. some Ahadith’ details: Jesus will kill dajjal/daggala, Jesus will fight with Ya’juj and Ma’juj/Gog and Mogog and when Jesus will pray birds will clear their corpses from earth. Moreover, Walid b. Muslim who had reported that Jesus will live 40 years confesses that “I read that in the book of Daniel”. Therefore, it is very clear that the other religious traditions which were before Islam had affected expectation belief of Islam. The other related Ahadith mention that messiah will kill Dajjal, he will govern with justice, all earth will be safe, so lions and camels, tigers with cows, wolfs with sheep’s will live together. Babies will put their hands to mount of snakes, but snakes will not bite them. If we look and read carefully the book of Isaiah many details almost exact the same. [106][106]

We can deduce from the facts above that some verses of Holy Bible and some Ahadith (!) are very close to each other. On the other hand some expressions about the descent of Jesus relate as well. He will descent from heaven/sky by helping two angels that Jesus will put their hand on angels’ wings and all unbelievers who will feel his breath will die. The same expression include in Daniel and Isaiah. The very famous periscope of the Old Testament which Daniel 7:13-14 has the same narration. [107][107] In the Matthew, he will comeback with power and great glory. [108][108] According to Gospel interpreter’s cloud of heaven are Angels. Thus, with Ka’b’ul Akhbar, this understanding enters to Islamic literature. [109][109]

It is very clear that related Ahadith, at least, some of them are problematic both sanad and matin at the same time. Nevertheless some Ahadith are affected/fiction from before the Holy Scriptures of the religious traditions, particularly Judaism and Christianity. After Prophet Muhammad, expectation belief has been made Hadith and showed as Hadith. In other word, it was started to being believed as Hadith.

If we focus on the New Testament’ related verses we can see that the return of Jesus is tremendously involved in the topic of his sacrifice. He was sacrificed for the original sin of people. [110][110] In the New Testament we see that there was a treaty between God and mankind. The reason was that the Son of God had come to offer salvation to mankind. There is no doubt that Jesus (pbuh) of Nazareth was the Messiah. Through God’s omniscience, he had made the greatest plan for man’s salvation. According to Christian theology, God’s divine plan for human salvation was closely linked to the Virgin Mary. God had decided to send His Son from the Trinity to earth. That was the first step of this great plan. Jesus lived in order to accomplish this goal.

According to Christianity, God’s greatest plan concerned Jesus. The most important emphasis of Christian theology is that Jesus was the crucified savior and specifically sacrificed himself for mankind. The entire Passion of Christ was completely for us. God sent Jesus, God’s own Son, to the cross for our sins. “Christ was sacrificed once to take away the sins of many people; and he will appear a second time, not to bear sin, but to bring salvation to those who are waiting for him.” [111][111] Therefore, according to Christian theology, since Jesus was truly the Son of God, his crucifixion could be for all humans, bringing salvation for all people. This is the second step of God’s great plan. When Jesus returns to earth as the Messianic Savior, God’s great plan will be completed. Jesus is not simply seen in the context of his life but within the context of all history. Christianity sees Jesus as Lord of history, especially the history that begins in the Old Testament. God’s whole plan was to rely completely on Jesus.

God desired to realize His plan, [112][112] and Jesus accepted it. [113][113] Thus it is said: “By that will, we have been made holy through the sacrifice of the body of Jesus Christ once for all. [114][114] Jesus (as divine logos) as one with his Father and Holy Spirit for past eternity is effectuated. Christians believe that he died, rose on the third day, appeared to his disciples for forty days, ascended to God’s right hand, remains present with us, and will come again.

Jesus Christ was chosen for all people by God and represents “eternal salvation.” His sufferings and triumph are not theoretical but experiential. In Kilpatrick, in Christianity suffering is not merely defeated; it is encountered and then transfigured. [115][115] Such salvation is the heart of the Gospel, i.e. the Church’s message. Humankind needs to get away from their sins as a necessary part of this divine plan. Divine action has been executed in the life of Jesus and is continued by him. [116][116] As a savior, Jesus is closely related to the redemption doctrine of Christian theology in light of many New Testament verses. Indeed, according to Christian scholars, being the savior means Jesus Christ is the ransom and redemption for all humanity through himself on the cross as a necessary part of God (the Father’s) new covenant through His unique and eternal Son the Messiah. Hence, sins of all humankind will be forgiven only through his sacrifice. This is the essential plan of God who has decided before time. Finally, Jesus will come back for all in Christian theology. Thus I discussed the special place of second coming of Jesus in Christianity and I demonstrated that some similar beliefs had transferred to Islam from before Abrahamic traditions which are Judaism and Christianity.

6. JESUS WILL COMEBACK AS SHAS-I MANEWEE (IMMETERIAL PERSONALITY, HIS LOVE, MERCY, AND JUSTICE)

Related Ahadith has been interpreted metaphorically by Rashid Riza, Muhammad Abduh, Hamdi Yazir and Said Nursi. For these scholars, about descent of Jesus news are symbolic statements. When Judaism had degenerated God had sent a new religion. Exact by the same way when Christianity had degenerated God had sent a new religion, Islam. At the end of world, someone will renewal/tajdid this religion and will work for peace and full merciful world.

As a result, these scholars do not see related Ahadith as Mutewatir, however, related Ahadith are sahih/truth and they do not deny them and attribute them symbolic meanings. Hence they acquire two things which are neither to accept related Ahadith as Mutewatir nor to do not deny Ahad Ahadith which some of them are sahih/truth Ahadith. Thus they say that some people will represent Jesus’ soul, his mercy, love, compassion and forgiveness. However, we can not say their sharing the same understanding in details of their views. [117][117]

Jesus’ shahs-ı manevi (His immaterial personality) will return:

Halimi, Taftazani, and other scholars who are in the early term approved this interpretation concerning Jesus. Contemporary scholars Muhammad Abduh and M. Rashid Riza, and also Badiuzzaman Said Nursi, share this insight. The death of Jesus and his return in the last term concern verses that are not clear in the Qur’an. Nevertheless, there are many Ahadith concerning the return of Jesus. Accordingly, to reject this belief is not completely correct. Jesus had been raised by Allah with his body and soul, and Allah permitted him to die a natural death. These Ahadith should be examined carefully. In these Ahadith, the immaterial personality of Jesus will appear in the future bringing peace, love, tolerance, compassion, and justice to or through his followers. As a result, this insight is the third one: that Jesus will return as an immaterial personality (shahs-i manavi.) and will bring humanity love, tolerance, justice, compassion, mercy, and peace in the apocalyptic age. However, it is very clear that all concerned Ahadith describe a real man, not an immaterial personality. Besides, it must be remembered that there is no clear verse in the Qur’an concerning Jesus’ return. [118][118] If Jesus’ return is possible, that does not mean he did not die. All the things written above show clearly that it is impossible to claim that he did not die and that he will return because, according to the data of the Qur’an, Islam is the permanent religion until forever [119][119] and Muhammad is the Last Prophet of Allah. [120][120]

However, the soul of Jesus was taken by Allah who raised Jesus unto Himself. The concept of rising means in soul or degree, not in material body. While it is not an obstacle for us to understand that Jesus died naturally, the Islamic perspective on Jesus’ crucifixion refuses to accept Jesus’ death as a price or ransom for our sins. Fundamentally, the redemption or atonement of human sin found in Christianity is rejected, as is the belief that Jesus intentionally chose to be crucified for our salvation as part of God’s plan for humanity. Parties have different convictions and beliefs (faiths) in the one called Jesus, the Messiah of Nazareth.

From an Islamic perspective any Muslim is a Messiah whose efforts help the final message of God. Messiah is any Muslim scholar who directs the people to the right way of Allah. In this concept, all Muslims have to help and struggle for the increase of mankind with love, peace, tolerance, social justice, forgiveness, mercy, because these are the duties and missions of all Muslims. Thus it can be social justice, and it can also end all wars, famines, and unrest in the world. Every Muslim has to do his duty and responsibility. In Badiuzzaman Said Nursi, second coming of Jesus means metaphorical interpretation. According to him, Jesus’ second coming is very easy for God and his coming means to win and overcome from atheism. When Jesus will comeback namely Christianity will change and covert to Islam completely, Islam will have great victory.

According to Kaya, the community understanding is more important than persons. For him, apocalyptic figures seem to convey the distinction between the real person and the figures. Kaya who has many quotations from Badiuzzaman return of Jesus had to believe as a community of love. In this case, Dajjal and his arm also had to believe as an evil or evil thoughts’ community.[121][121]

Interestingly, this view is also problematic because any verse or hadith which are related with descent of Jesus do never mention from this view. Related verses and Ahadith mention from only one person who is Jesus the Nazareth, son of Mary that is a real man, not immaterial personality. This view is much better than first two which have said that he will comeback or he will not comeback. Indeed, if we focus on and hard work for peace we can have it, but this idea which is peace and love which will be full in our world does never means Jesus will descent to the earth. Unfortunately, metaphoric interpretations can not be able to solve this great problem. Once, any related verse and hadith do not mention these kinds of interpretation. This interpretation is only reconciler Muslim scholars’ views that they do not deny or accept to Ahad hadith as a proof for creedal system of Islam.


CONCLUSION:

This paper demonstrated that descent/second coming of Jesus issue is problematic in Islam through related verses which are two and related Ahadith which are 178, at most. To believe in second coming of Jesus is not absolute necessary in Islam. Everybody can believe in this belief or not believe. Concerning the return of Jesus Christ, related verses’ interpretations have to compare each other (traditionalist and modernist approaching); particularly all Ahadith should be examined more closely, because it is almost impossible to accept this belief if only the Qur’an is examined.

Jesus’ soul was taken by Allah, and he was elevated to Allah. According to the Qur’an this expression of ‘elevation’ means exaltation of his soul and ranking. There are however, two reasons how the notion of “Jesus being elevated to heaven and his prospect of returning back” entered Islam. The first of them is that the commentaries of the Qur’an (Mufassirs) coming from Christian and Jewish backgrounds (converted Muslims) brought the interpretations from their beliefs and cultures of expected messiah to Islam, which is called Israiliyyat; and the second one is the Ahadith, each one of which requires separate meticulous investigation on, for –as opposed to what is commonly believed- only a few of the Ahadith regarding the return of Jesus are accurate.

As can be known, in Islam, it takes a verse or a Mutewatir (accurate) Hadith to be an issue of a belief. Everything, which does not comply with this, entails probability rather than certainty. According to the information given by the Qur’an, it is obvious that Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and the prophets before him died. From this standpoint, Jesus’ return does not seem possible. Moreover, according to the Qur’an, there is only one person foretold by the Gospel and the Torah, and had been expected since then: he is the Prophet Muhammad Mustapha (pbuh), who is the last prophet, sent to all humanity. He, however, completed the mission Allah gave him, and died, albeit his message is universal and will last until the Last day. Thus, it should be noted that, from this perspective, according to the Qur’an return of Jesus is impossible. As for the Ahadith pertinent to the subject; they all need to be determined, and then undergo strict scrutiny in terms of both the text and body of narrators attached to them; so that it would be possible to conclude healthier information on return of the Prophet Jesus. Nevertheless, it is not an obligation and duty for a Muslim to wait for the Messiah.

It is very clear that related verses are not very clear about descent of Jesus to the earth. In that regard we must discuss related Ahadith seriously, again. If he will comeback that only means Jesus is a sign for the end of the cosmos. Related Ahadith express clearly that Jesus’ return will be as a leader of Muslims after Mahdi. This is the other problem. Mahdi is not messenger of God while Jesus is the top five Prophets/ulu’l azm who were messengers. The other problem is this concept of return as understood as a type of reincarnation. This concept resonates in eastern and Indian traditions. Abrahamic traditions’ hereafter understand that the straight rod while eastern and Indian traditions’ are like circle, coming again and again to the earth. On the other side, nevertheless there are two apocalypses. First of it is big one which we do not really know that. Second one is small one which is death of ourselves and we do not know when. Indeed, all humans are mortal, which come to reify the idea of a doomsday. In that regard, the objective asserts that mortal creatures of the human type, must get ready for death. To expect a savior is not a mission of a Muslim from heaven.

Allah who is the knower of everything unknown, but He also who is unique knower about future – the on set of the doomsday and/or the obliteration thereof.





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[1] Interpretation of Qur’an. [2] It is tradition and sentences of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). [3] Bases of worship and Islamic law. [4] al- Maryam, 19/33. [5] Ilyas Celebi, "Isa", Diyanet Islam Ansiklopedisi, (DIA), Istanbul 2000, XXII, p. 472 [6] Zeki Saritoprak, Islam Inanclari Acisindan Nuzul-i Isa, Izmir 1997, p. 9-10. [7] See Psalms 2:2. [8] Saritoprak, p. 7-8. [9] Ekrem Sarikcioglu, Dinlerde Mehdi Tasavvuru, Samsun 1997, p. 9. [10] Sarıkcioglu, p. 15. [11] Harold Louis Ginsberg, “Messiah” , Encyclopedia Judaica, Jerusalem 1972-1978, XI, 1407- 8; C. W. Emmet, “Messiah”, Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics (ERE), VIII, 571; E. Jenni, “Messiah Jewish” , Interpreter’s the Dictionary of the Bible (IDB), Nashville 1988, III, 360. [12] James Strong, “Christ”, p. 195-7. [13] S. E. Johnson, “Christ” , IDB, I, 563. [14] Emmet, p. 571. [15] Ebu Abdurrahman Halil b. Ahmed b. Amir al-Farahidi, al-Ayn, Beyrut 1993, III, 1698-99; Ebu’l Fazl Muhammed Ibn Manzur, “m-s-h” md., Lisan’ul-Arab, Beyrut (n.t), II, 593. [16] Harold Louis Ginsberg, “Messiah” , EJ, XI, 1407-8; John, 1:41. [17] S. E. Johnson, “Christ” , IDB, I, 563; E. Jenni, “Mesiah Jewish” , IDB, III, 360. [18] 1. Samuel, 16:12-13; 1. Kings, 1:39. [19] 2. Samuel, 7:8-12; 1.Chron., 17:7-12. [20] 1. Samuel, 10:1; Exit, 29;7-9; Numbers, 35:25. [21] 1. Kings, 22:29-30. [22] 1. Kings, 19:15-16. [23] Harold Louis Ginsberg, “Messiah” , EJ, XI, 1407-8. [24] James Strong, “Expected”, p. 335. [25] Isaiah, 9:6-7. [26] Isaiah, 11:6-8. [27] James Strong, The New Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible, Nashville 1990, “Messiah, Messias”, p. 702. [28] C. W. Emmet, “Messiah” , ERE, VIII, p. 571. [29] Emmet, p. 574. [30] Sarıkcioglu, p. 18. [31] Saritoprak, p. 11. [32] Saritoprak, p. 17-19. [33] Saritoprak, p. 20. [34] Turkiye Haham Basiligi, Ibrani Din Bilgisi, Istanbul 1992, p. 21-22. [35] Emmet, p. 575. [36] Sarıtoprak, p. 21. [37] Emmet, p. 580. [38] Revelation 21:5. [39] Rev., 20:1-6; Matt., 19:28; Act., 3:21. [40] Rev., 21:1; Isaiah, 65:17; 66:22; 2. Pet., 3:13. [41] Rev., 21:2; 21: 9-21; Isaiah, 54:11-2; Ezekiel, 48:30-5. [42] Rev., 21:3-7; Rom., 5:2; 8:17-8. [43] Rev., 21:4; Isaiah, 25:8; 1. Cor., 15:54-5. [44] Rev., 21:22-7; Isaiah, 60:19-20. [45] Rev., 22:1-5; Gen., 2:9; Isaiah, 60:19. [46] Carlos Madrigal, p. 246-7. [47] R. J. Zwi Werblowsky, “Christianity” , Encyclopedia Judaica, V, p. 509. [48] See Rev. 19:11-22:5. [49] See Rev. 21:1-22:5. [50] See I Cor. 16:22. [51] Raymond E. Brown, An Introduction to the New Testament, New York 1997, p. 794-795. [52] Ibn Kathir, Tafsiru’l Quran al-Azim, Riyad 1418/1997, II., p. 452-453, and see the same command p. 455-456. [53] Ibn Kathir, VII., p. 236. [54] Ibn Kathir, p. 236. [55] Mehmet Unal, Tefsir Kaynaklarina Gore Hz. Isa’nin Olumu, Ref’i ve Nuzulu Meselesi, Islamiyat, Volume III., Number IV, Ankara Ekim Aralik 2000, p. 142-143. [56] Aal-i Imran, 3/55; an-Nisa, 4/157. [57] “And there is none of the People of the Book but must believe in him before his death; and on the Day of Judgment he will be a witness against them”, an-Nisa, 4/159. [58] “And most surely, it is knowledge of the hour, therefore have no doubt about it and follow me: this is the right path”, az-Zukhruf, 43/61. [59] Sayyid Mahmud Aaluusi al Bagdadi, Ruhu’l Maani fi Tafsir al Quran al Azim va’s-sub’ul al Masaani, Bayrut 1994, III., p. 187-188. [60] az-Zukhruf, 43:59. [61] Kenneth Cragg, Jesus and the Muslim (an exploration), London 1985. p. 58. [62] Aalusi, XIII., 94-95. [63] Unal, p. 144-145. [64] Ruqaiyyah Waris Maqsood, A Basic Dictionary of Islam, Lahore 2001, p. 153. [65][65] Lavamiu’l Anvari’l Bahiyya, as-Saffarini, Kahira 1984, II., p. 94-95. [66] as-Sahih-i Muslim, Kitabu’l Fitan, 39. [67] Buhari, Kitabu'l-Buyu': 102, Mazalim: 31, Anbiya 49; Muslim, Iman: 242; Abu Davud, Malahim: 14; Tirmizi, Fitan: 54. [68] Muhammad Asad (translated and explained), the Message of the Quran, Dublin 1980, an-Nisa 4:159, p. 135. [69] Asad, az-Zukhruf 43/61, p. 756. [70] Ibn Kathir, p. 236. [71]Ibn Kathir, p. 236. [72] “Never said I to them aught except what Thou didst command me to say, to wit, ‘worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord’; and I was a witness over them whilst I dwelt amongst them; when Thou didst take me up Thou wast the Watcher over them, and Thou art a witness to all things”, al-Maida, 5/117. [73] Aal-i Imran, 3/55. [74] See, az-Zukhruf, 43/61. [75] It is from Quranic sciences, that it interested in with different read the Quran. [76] M. Hayri Kirbasoglu, Hz. Isa’yi (as) Gokten Indiren Hadislerin Tenkidi, Islamiyat, Volume III., Number IV, Ankara Ekim Aralik 2000, p. 147. [77] Kirbasoglu, p. 149-153. [78] Kirbasoglu, p. 153-154. [79]Kirbasoglu, p. 154-155. [80][80] Kirbasoglu, p. 155. [81][81] Kirbasoglu, P.156. [82][82] Kirbasoglu, p. 157. [83][83] Kirbasoglu, p. 158. [84][84] See, footnote 104. [85][85] Kirbasoglu, 158-159. [86][86] Kirbasoglu, p. 160-161. [87][87] Kirbasoglu, p. 162-163. [88][88] See Qur’an, al-Fateh, 48/23. [89][89] According to Ibn Kathir, related Ahadith are Mutawatir. See Ibn Kathir, p. 236. [90][90] Mutawatir Hadith: The most important are Ahadith. These kind Ahadith reports from very large groups to large groups. To unite on the same lie is impossible; because many people heard the same sentence from the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). (I.e. Prophet Muhammad spoke in front of army) Ahad Hadith: The second kind of Hadith, does not have the same characters like Mutawatir Ahadith. The majority of Sunni Islamic scholars accept that Ahad Ahadith cannot be proof for faith, because this kind of knowledge is not yaqin (certain knowledge) and it expresses zan (Habar-i Vahid / doubt, suspicion) in belief issues. See, Yusuf Sevki Yavuz, “Haber-i Vahid”, DIA, Istanbul 1996, XIV., p. 353-355. [91][91] See, Psalm., 24:7-10; Matt., 25:31; Act, 3:19-21; Rev., 20:4; 22:5; 22:20-21. [92][92] Six Ahadith collection that it is very famous and important in Islamic sciences. [93][93] Muhtalif’ul Hadith science interested in with contradictory Ahadith. [94][94] See, M. Hayri Kirbas, “Hz. Isa’yi (as) Gokten Indiren Hadislerin Tenkidi, Islamiyat 2000, III, Sayi 4, p. 147-168. [95][95] Ilyas Celebi, “Isa”, DIA, XXII, 472-473. [96][96] Suleyman Ates, Kuran Ansiklopedisi, X, 218. [97][97] Muslims believe in that Allah has sent only one Gospel and only Torah which is the first five books of the Hebrew Bible/Tanakh. [98][98] al-Maida, 5/46. [99][99] al-Ahzab, 33/40, other see, Mehmed Aydin, “Besairu’n-nubuvve”, DIA, V, 550. [100][100] See for all “Messiah” words in the Quran, Muhammad Fuad Abdulbaqi, al-Mu’camu’l Mufahras, Istanbul 1982, p. 666. [101][101] See for all word “Isa” / Jesus words in the Qur’an, Abdulbaqi, p. 494-495. [102][102] al-Maryam, 19/33. [103][103] Suleyman Ates, Kur’an Ansiklopedisi, X, p. 207. [104][104] For this Hadith and similaries of its see, Bukhari, el-Cami’us-sahih, “Buyu’ ”, 102; “Mazalim” 31; “Anbiya”, 49, Istanbul 1992; Muslim, Sahih-i Muslim, “Iman”, 242-3, Istanbul 1992; Tirmizi, Sunen-i Tirmizi, “Fitan”, 54, Istanbul 1992; other see, for Ahadith, which talks about return of Jesus to earth, Muslim, Sahih-i Muslim, “Iman”, 244-7, “Hajj”, 216; “Fitan”, 34, 39, 110; Tirmizi, Sunen-i Tirmizi, “Fitan”, 21, 59. [105][105] Suleyman Ates, Kur’an Ansiklopedisi, X, 218. [106][106] but with righteousness he shall judge the poor, and decide with equity for the meek of the earth; he shall strike the earth with the rod of his mouth, and with the breath of his lips he shall kill the wicked. Righteousness shall be the belt around his waist, and faithfulness the belt around his loins. The wolf shall live with the lamb, the leopard shall lie down with the kid, the calf and the lion and the fatling together, and a little child shall lead them. The cow and the bear shall graze, their young shall lie down together; and the lion shall eat straw like the ox. The nursing child shall play over the hole of the asp, and the weaned child shall put its hand on the adder’s den. They will not hurt or destroy on all my holy mountain; See Isaiah 11:4-9. [107][107] As I watched in the night visions, I saw one like a human being coming with the clouds of heaven. And he came to the Ancient One and was presented before him. To him was given dominion and glory and kingship, that all peoples, nations, and languages should serve him. His dominion is an everlasting dominion that shall not pass away, and his kingship is one that shall never be destroyed. See Daniel 7:13-14. [108][108] ‘Immediately after the suffering of those days the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light; the stars will fall from heaven, and the powers of heaven will be shaken. Then the sign of the Son of Man will appear in heaven, and then all the tribes of the earth will mourn, and they will see “the Son of Man coming on the clouds of heaven” with power and great glory. See Matthew 24:29-30. [109][109] Kirbasoglu, 163-164. [110][110] See, Psalters. 24:7-10; Matthew, 25:31; Act, 3:19-21; Revelation, 20:4; 22:5; 22:20-21. [111][111] Hebrews 9:27-8. [112][112] John 6: 38. [113][113] John, 14:31. [114][114] Hebrew, 10:10. [115][115] T.B. Kilpatrick, “Salvation”, Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics (ERE), XI., New York 1921, p. 127. [116][116] Kilpatrick, p. 124. [117][117] Unal, 145-146. [118][118] Ilyas Celebi, “Isa”,DIA, XXII, 472-3. [119][119] Aal-i Imran, 3/19. [120][120] “Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but (he is) the Messenger of Allah, and the last (seal) of the Prophets: and Allah has full knowledge of all things.” al-Ahzab, 33/40. [121][121] M. Ali Kaya, Hz. Isa’nin (as) Yeniden Donusu, Kopru, Isevilik, Istanbul 2006, p. 225. [HSV2]Hilmi, from this point on I stopped making corrections.

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