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  • Rıdvan Demir

JESUS IN/OF ISLAM


THE SECOND COMING OF HIM (PBUH)


INTRODUCTION:


The return of Jesus is one of the signs of the apocalypse in Islam. For many Muslim scholars, this belief is severely problematic. In this paper, I will examine the second coming of Jesus (pbuh), which is from an Islamic perspective more than Christian perspective. I will provide brief information about the return of Jesus found in the Christian creedal system before the heading of Islamic perspective.[1]


The Quran has not spoken clearly concerning return of Jesus while the Hadiths concerning Jesus' second coming are very clear. Certain theological disagreements emerged similar to this, Muslim scholars had applied a certain methodology in order to understand and interpret problematic information from Tafsir [2], Hadiths [3], and Fiqih. [4]


Jesus’ birth and death are mentioned in the Quran. [5] Jesus’ death and return has been a topic discussed in Islam through history under the name Nuzuul-u Isa (descent or return of Jesus). There is no clear or express verse about Jesus’ comeback before the apocalypse. [6] According to the general Islamic understanding, the resurrection of Jesus before the apocalypse, like all humanity, is not like the pre-apocalypse Christian understanding of his resurrection. This topic, the problem of the end of Jesus, is in both religions: Christianity and Islam.



CHRISTIAN PERSPECTIVE:


The return of Jesus is tremendously involved in the topic of his sacrifice. He was sacrificed for the original sin of people. [7]


In the New Testament we see that there was a treaty between God and mankind. The reason was that the Son of God had come to offer salvation to mankind. There is no doubt that Jesus (pbuh) of Nazareth was the Messiah. Through God’s omniscience, he had made the greatest plan for man’s salvation. According to Christian theology, God’s divine plan for human salvation was closely linked to the Virgin Mary. God had decided to send His Son from the Trinity to earth. That was the first step of this great plan. Jesus lived in order to accomplish this goal.


According to Christianity, God’s greatest plan concerned Jesus. The most important emphasis of Christian theology is that Jesus was the crucified savior and specifically sacrificed himself for mankind. The entire Passion of Christ was completely for us. God sent Jesus, God’s own Son, to the cross for our sins. “Christ was sacrificed once to take away the sins of many people; and he will appear a second time, not to bear sin, but to bring salvation to those who are waiting for him.” [8] Therefore, according to Christian theology, since Jesus was truly the Son of God, his crucifixion could be for all humans, bringing salvation for all people. This is the second step of God’s great plan. When Jesus returns to earth as the Messianic Savior, God’s great plan will be completed. Jesus is not simply seen in the context of his life but within the context of all history. Christianity sees Jesus as Lord of history, especially the history that begins in the Old Testament. God’s whole plan was to rely completely on Jesus.


God desired to realize His plan, [9] and Jesus accepted it. [10] Thus it is said: “By that will, we have been made holy through the sacrifice of the body of Jesus Christ once for all. [11] Jesus (as divine logos) as one with his Father and Holy Spirit for past eternity is effectuated. Christians believe that he died, rose on the third day, appeared to his disciples for forty days, ascended to God’s right hand, remains present with us, and will come again.


Jesus Christ was chosen for all people by God and represents “eternal salvation.” His sufferings and triumph are not theoretical but experiential. In Kilpatrick, in Christianity suffering is not merely defeated; it is encountered and then transfigured. [12] Such salvation is the heart of the Gospel, i.e. the Church’s message. Humankind needs to get away from their sins as a necessary part of this divine plan. Divine action has been executed in the life of Jesus and is continued by him. [13] As a savior, Jesus is closely related to the redemption doctrine of Christian theology in light of many New Testament verses. Indeed, according to Christian scholars, being the savior means Jesus Christ is the ransom and redemption for all humanity through himself on the cross as a necessary part of God (the Father’s) new covenant through His unique and eternal Son the Messiah. Hence, sins of all humankind will be forgiven only through his sacrifice. This is the essential plan of God who has decided before time. Finally, Jesus will come back for all in Christian theology.




ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE:


In several different places, the Quran talks of Jesus’ death and his being raised to Allah. In this sense, words and verses will be discussed as they refer to and give details concerning Jesus’ end. Key concepts are interpreted according to different Islamic scholars and historic thoughts. If we understand how superstitious beliefs are introduced into Islamic understanding in the early periods, we will be able to clearly see that Jesus’ return is impossible.


The word masiih [14] / messiah is repeated eleven times in nine places in the Quran. I’sa [15] / Jesus is a name, and Messiah is a title/name of Jesus in the Quran. The Qur’an does mention Jesus’ birth and death;[16] however, this does not mean that Jesus lives now.


The apocalypse in Islam is the end time when all people are resurrected. Therefore, general understanding of Islamic scholars, who believe in the second coming of Jesus, is that he will come back before apocalypse. Nevertheless, as well known, in Christian theology, Jesus is in heaven present and he is sitting in the right of God the father of him and he will come back for judge . As is also well known, Jesus came to save mankind the first time, but will come back a second time to judge those who did not believe in him. There are two reasons the notion of Jesus being elevated to heaven and his prospect of returning entered Islam. First, the commentaries of the Quran (Mufassirs) coming from Christian and Jewish converts brought to Islam the interpretations from their beliefs and cultures of an expected messiah. Muslims call these non-traditional and sometimes baseless kinds of thought and interjected beliefs, Israiliyyat.


The second reason are the mentions of Jesus’ return, as purported by the Hadith. However, each Hadith requires meticulous investigation, and opposed to what is commonly believed, only a few of the Hadiths regarding the return of Jesus are accurate. [17] Indeed, in different Hadiths, Abu Hurayrah reported that Jesus would descend to the earth as a sign of the apocalypse. These Hadiths were reported by Abu Hurayrah with different chains (sanads or “ways”) in Bukhari, Muslim, and Tirmizi:


Abu Hurayrah said, ‘The Prophet said, 'The son of Mary will come down as a just leader. He will break the cross, and kill the pigs. Peace will prevail, and people will use their swords as sickles. Every harmful beast will be made harmless; the sky will send down rain in abundance, and the earth will bring forth its blessings. A child will play with a fox and not come to any harm; a wolf will graze with sheep and a lion with cattle, without harming them.'’” [18]


Allah has clearly explained that Jesus’ body died in verse 55 of the Aali Imran Chapter and verse 117 of the al-Maidah Chapter. Jesus was not killed by others. Allah ended Jesus’ life naturally. Therefore, his immaterial degree was raised when his soul was raised as the souls of all prophets are raised by Allah, who prefers all good things for His prophets. In the Qur’an, it is declared that Jesus will die. Nobody gave eternal life before Muhammad in the 34th verse of the al-Anbiya Chapter, which informs that Muhammad will die a day to prove that Jesus has died, [19] according to Ilyas Celebi, author of the Encyclopedia of Islam material on Isa (Jesus) which concerns the death of Jesus under the heading of ilm al-Kalaam (belief system/credo).




RETURN OF JESUS ISLAM:


In summary, I want to align various (and conflicting) Islamic insights concerning the end and return of Jesus that are important for this essay and concern verses of the Qur’an.


1. Jesus will return. These insights are promulgated by the Kalam scholars Ahl-i Sunnah (adherents or followers of the Prophet Muhammad), Salafiyya (followers of early term) and Shi’a. Jesus rose with his body and soul (ruh ma’al casad) together when the people who denied Jesus wanted to kill him. He will descend before the apocalypse, believe, and follow the revelation of the Prophet Muhammad. He will kill the Antichrist (Daggala) and bring justice to earth. Verses of the Qur’an and Hadiths support this belief, and Salafiyya (followers of an earlier term) and Shi’a interpreted the verses as saying that Jesus was not killed by his enemies but was permitted to die a natural death by Allah.[20] The Qur’an uses the word tavaffi to mean Jesus was killed by Allah (Note past tense/siga-i maadi, however present tense/siga-i mudaari). Thus, according to this verse, Allah will kill Jesus before the apocalypse. He still lives and will return before the apocalypse, because other verses have said that as well. All the People of the Book (Ahl-i Kitab) will have faith in Jesus before his death, [21] and Jesus’ return will be explained as a sign of apocalypse. [22]


2. Jesus will not return. Mu’tazila Kalam scholars (as well as contemporary Sunni scholars Ahmad Amin, Abdulkarim al-Hatib, Abu Rayya, and Muhammad Izzad Darvaza) agree. When the enemies of Jesus wanted to kill him, Allah raised to himself the soul of Jesus by a natural death. This is the clear meaning of the Qur’an. On this concept, the Qur’an has used the past tense concerning Jesus.[23] Therefore, it did not say that he will die in the future, but it meant that Allah permitted him to die in Aali Imran Chapter.[24] Nevertheless, followers have misinterpreted this verse. According to this verse, the People of the Book will have faith (belief) in Jesus before Jesus’ death by adherents of the return of Jesus (Nuzul-u Isa.) This verse has been misunderstood to say that the People of the Book will have faith before their own deaths and to say that Jews are also included. Besides, the verse in az-Zuhruf Chapter [25] has been misinterpreted to say that Jesus’ return is a sign of the apocalypse because this verse can be read in two different ways in the science of Quran’s reciting (Ilm al- Qiraah.) [26] In this verse, letters ‘ayn, lam, and mim can be read as “‘alaamah” (sign) and as “ilim” (enlightenment/science), so this verse explains absolutely and clearly that the apocalypse will happen. There is certain knowledge that is difficult to doubt. As the Prophet Muhammad is the Last Prophet, the return of Jesus to the earth is impossible. Otherwise, this belief would contradict the principle of the Seal of the Prophets (Hatm-i Nubuvvah).


3. Jesus’ shahs-ı manevi (His immaterial personality) will return. Halimi, Taftazani, and other scholars who are in the early term approved this interpretation concerning Jesus. Contemporary scholars Muhammad Abduh and M. Rashid Riza, and also Badiuzzaman Said Nursi, share this insight. The death of Jesus and his return in the last term concern verses that are not clear in the Qur’an. Nevertheless, there are many Hadiths concerning the return of Jesus. Accordingly, to reject this belief is not completely correct. Jesus had been raised by Allah with his body and soul, and Allah permitted him to die a natural death. These Hadiths should be examined carefully. In these Hadiths, the immaterial personality of Jesus will appear in the future bringing peace, love, tolerance, compassion, and justice to or through his followers.


The second and third insights concerning Jesus’ death and rising unite in one point: Jesus died a natural death, was not raised by Allah with both his body and soul, and his descent to earth as a human before the apocalypse is impossible. These two insights’ differences originate from reports ascribed to Prophet Muhammad. Consequently, it is impossible to believe Jesus will return because when the Qur’an expresses a thing clearly it cannot be contradicted. Also, according to Kalam (Islamic belief system), belief cannot build on doubt or suspicion. There is not yakin (certain information/knowledge) in Islam concerning the raising of Jesus and his descent from heaven to earth. Even Tabari, Ibn Katsir, Kashmiri, and M. Zahid Kawsari like other scholars of Islam say: these Hadiths are Mutawatir. Actually these Hadiths consist from Haber-i Vahid (Ahad news, not certain knowledge until Mutawatir.) Islamic beliefs could not build on these kinds of Hadiths.[27] Beliefs that Jesus was sacrificed for sin of people and will return as expected king to found the kingdom of God belongs only to Christian belief systems. [28]


Notably, there is detailed information in different books (in except Kutub-u Sitte [29]) concerning the place where Jesus will return, his actions, life and death in this world. Nevertheless in these different Hadiths, about time of Jesus’ return, means of return, how long he stayed the number of followers, his actions and jobs, and his sepulcher place. These Hadiths contradict each other. Therefore, the Muhtelif’ul Hadith have been applied. [30]


M. Hayri Kirbasoglu who in his article “Criticism of Hadiths that Jesus descended from heaven” has examined Hadiths according to the research methodology, sanad (chain/ reported part of Hadith) criticize, matin (sentence part of Hadith) Mutewatir allegation, foreign research/ Israiliyat, and it could not reach Mutewatir degree and it has stayed in Ahad degree Hadiths. Nevertheless he has also examined in Ahad degree Hadiths that he has stated they are not certain knowledge and could not accepted as proof according to Kalam science. Thus he has espoused that denial of the return of Jesus does not mean that one is an unbeliever, because belief can only be constituted with Mutewatir knowledge that it was explained above. Ultimately, if whoever does not believe the return of Jesus it does not said for these people who are unbeliever /kafir according Kalam science. [31] It was like expressed before, when Muslims encounter/ meet with Christian culture to enter the Islam beliefs of Nuzul-u Isa (return of Jesus) belief is probable. [32] All Muslims shall believe the death of Jesus, because Allah has been told in verse 34 of the Anbiya chapter in Qur’an. No one had eternal life before Muhammad according to this verse, all people died before him, and he (Prophet Muhammad) also will die one day. Today, we know that the Prophet Muhammad has died, and Jesus also has died. [33]


On the other hand, the Qur’an expressed very clearly that Injil/ the Gospel has been affirmed by the Tavrat/the Torah.[34] The Quran says that:


“And in their footsteps We sent Jesus the son of Mary, confirming the Law that had come before him: We sent him the Gospel: therein was guidance and light, and confirmation of the Law that had come before him: a guidance and an admonition to those who fear Allah.” [35]


Concerning this concept, the Qur’an has affirmed earlier books, and there are many subjects concerning Gospel in the Qur’an. In this situation, it is impossible that the Qur’anic understanding can return to the beginning. While the Qur’an has spoken about Gospel and Torah, we cannot think about the return of Jesus. All scriptures before the Qur’an are informative, but only the Qur’an has told us to not expect a savior for the future. Because the Qur’an says:

“Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but (he is) the Messenger of Allah, and the last (seal) of the Prophets: and Allah has full knowledge of all things.” [36]


As a result, the most correct insight is the third one: that Jesus will return as an immaterial personality (shahs-i manavi.) and will bring humanity love, tolerance, justice, compassion, mercy, and peace in the apocalyptic age. However, it is very clear that all concerned Hadiths describe a real man, not an immaterial personality. Besides, it must be remembered that there is no clear verse in the Qur’an concerning Jesus’ return. [37] If Jesus’ return is possible, that does not mean he did not die. All the things written above show clearly that it is impossible to claim that he did not die and that he will return because, according to the data of the Qur’an, “Islam is the permanent religion until forever” [38] and Muhammad is the Last Prophet of Allah. [39]


However, the soul of Jesus was taken by Allah who raised Jesus unto Himself. The concept of raising means in soul or degree, not in material body. While it is not an obstacle for us to understand that Jesus died naturally, the Islamic perspective on Jesus’ crucifixion refuses to accept Jesus’ death as a price or ransom for our sins. Fundamentally, the redemption or atonement of human sin found in Christianity is rejected, as is the belief that Jesus intentionally chose to be crucified for our salvation as part of God’s plan for humanity. Parties have different convictions and beliefs (faiths) in the one called Jesus, the Messiah of Nazareth.






CONCLUSION:


As a result, the most correct insight is the third one: that the return of Jesus will be as an immaterial personality. He will bring mankind love, tolerance, just, compassion, mercy, and peace in the apocalyptic term. However, it is very clear that all concerned Hadiths describe a real man, not an immaterial personality. Besides, it must be remembered that there is no clear verse in the Qur’an concerning the return of Jesus. [40] By defending Jesus’ return, the New Testament poses a severe discrepancy with the Qur’an.


Interestingly, from an Islamic perspective any Muslim is a Messiah whose efforts help the final message of God. Messiah is any Muslim scholar who directs the people to the right way of Allah. In this concept, all Muslims have to help and struggle for the increase of mankind with love, peace, tolerance, social justice, forgiveness, mercy, because these are the duties and missions of all Muslims. Thus it can be social justice, and it can also end all wars, famines, and unrest in the world. Every Muslim has to do his duty and responsibility. Concerning the return of Jesus Christ, all Hadiths should be examined more closely, because it is almost impossible to accept this belief if only the Qur’an is examined.


Jesus’ soul was taken by Allah, and he was elevated to Allah. According to the Qur’an this expression of ‘elevation’ means exaltation of his soul and ranking. There are however, two reasons how the notion of “Jesus being elevated to heaven and his prospect of returning back” entered Islam. The first of them is that the commentaries of the Qur’an (Mufassirs) coming from Christian and Jewish backgrounds (converted Muslims) brought the interpretations from their beliefs and cultures of expected messiah to Islam, which is called Israiliyyat; and the second one is the hadiths, each one of which requires separate meticulous investigation on, for –as opposed to what is commonly believed- only a few of the Hadiths regarding the return of Jesus are accurate.

As can be known, in Islam, it takes a verse or a Mutewatir (accurate) Hadith to be an issue of a belief. Everything, which does not comply with this, entails probability, not certainty. According to the information given by the Qur’an, it is obvious that Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and the prophets before him have died. From this standpoint, Jesus’ return does not seem possible. Moreover, according to the Qur’an, there is only one person foretold by the Gospel and the Torah, and had been expected since then: he is the Prophet Muhammad Mustapha (pbuh), who is the last prophet, sent to all humanity. He, however, completed the mission Allah gave him, and died, albeit his message is universal and will last until the Last day. Thus, it should be noted that, from this perspective, according to the Qur’an return of Jesus is impossible. As for the Hadiths pertinent to the subject; they all need to be determined, and then undergo strict scrutiny in terms of both the text and body of narrators attached to them; so that it would be possible to conclude healthier information on return of the Prophet Jesus. The volume of my article enables me to investigate the concept of the ‘return of Jesus’ generally in the Qur’an. It seems necessary that a separate study is needed on the relevant Hadiths. It is not an obligation and duty for a Muslim to wait for the Messiah.


I conclude this essay with a verse of the Quran:


“Behold! Allah said: "O Jesus! I will take thee and raise thee to Myself and clear thee (of the falsehoods) of those who blaspheme; I will make those who follow thee superior to those who reject faith, to the Day of Resurrection: Then shall ye all return unto me, and I will judge between you of the matters wherein ye dispute.” [41]






BIBLIOGRAPHY



Holy Qur’an, (translation):


Muhammad Yusuf Ali, the Meaning of the Holy Quran, Beltsville, Maryland 2004. (Primarily source of Islam which is the Quran. (ARABIC/ENGLISH)



Hadith Sources:


Bukhari, Ebu Abdullah Muhammad b. Ismail, al-Cami’us-sahih,“Buyu’ ”, 102, Istanbul 1992, I-VIII. (secondirly source of Islam which is Hadiths. (ARABIC)


_______, al-Cami’us-sahih, “Anbiya”, 49, Istanbul 1992, I-VIII. (ARABIC)


_______, al-Cami’us-sahih,“Mazalim”, 31, Istanbul 1992, I-VIII. (ARABIC)


Muslim, Sahih-i Muslim, “Iman”, 242-247, Istanbul 1992, I-III. (ARABIC)


______, Sahih-i Muslim, “Fitan”, 34-39,110, Istanbul 1992, I-III. (ARABIC)


______, Sahih-i Muslim, “Hajj”, 216, Istanbul 1992, I-III. (ARABIC)


Ibn Hanbal, Ahmad, Musnad, Istanbul l992, I-VI. (ARABIC)

Tirmizi, Ebu Isa Muhammad b. Isa b. Sevra, Sunen-i Tirmizi, “Fitan”, 21, 54, 59, Istanbul 1992, I-V. (ARABIC)


Concordance of the Quran:

Muhammad Fuad Abdulbaqi, al-Mu’camu’l Mufahras, Istanbul 1982. (ARABIC)


The Other Sources:


Celebi, Ilyas, (Diyanet Islam Ansiklopedisi) DIA, “Isa”, Istanbul 2000, XXII, 465-75. (TURKISH)

Holy Bible. (TURKISH/ENGLISH)


M. Hayri Kirbas, “Hz. Isa’yi (as) Gokten Indiren Hadislerin Tenkidi, Islamiyat 2000, III, Sayi 4. (TURKISH)


Mehmed Aydin, “Besairu’n-nubuvve”, DIA, Istanbul 1992, V., 549-550. (TURKISH)


Suleyman Ates, Kur’an Ansiklopedisi, X, Istanbul 1997. (TURKISH)


T.B. Kilpatrick, Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics (ERE), “Salvation”, XI., New York 1921, p. 109-151. (ENGLISH)


Yusuf Sevki Yavuz, “Haber-i Vahid”, DIA, Istanbul 1996, XIV., 349-363. (TURKISH)


[1] This paper will not discuss that is who Jesus is for me according to syllabus, because my first paper mentioned it. Hence, I will keep my page limit and will avoid repetition. [2] It is interpretation of Qur’an. [3] It is tradition and sentences of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). [4] Bases of worship and Islamic law. [5] al- Maryam, 19/33. [6] Ilyas Celebi, "Isa", Diyanet Islam Ansiklopedisi, (DIA), Istanbul 2000, XXII, p. 472 [7] See, Psalters. 24:7-10; Matthew, 25:31; Act, 3:19-21; Revelation, 20:4; 22:5; 22:20-21. [8] Hebrews 9:27-8. [9] John 6: 38. [10] John, 14:31. [11] Hebrew, 10:10. [12] T.B. Kilpatrick, “Salvation”, Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics (ERE), XI., New York 1921, p. 127. [13] Kilpatrick, p. 124. [14] See for all “Messiah” words in the Quran, Muhammad Fuad Abdulbaqi, al-Mu’camu’l Mufahras, Istanbul 1982, p. 666. [15] See for all word “Isa” / Jesus words in the Qur’an, Abdulbaqi, p. 494-495. [16] al-Maryam, 19/33. [17] Suleyman Ates, Kur’an Ansiklopedisi, X, p. 207. [18] For this Hadith and similaries of its see, Bukhari, el-Cami’us-sahih, “Buyu’ ”, 102; “Mazalim” 31; “Anbiya”, 49, Istanbul 1992; Muslim, Sahih-i Muslim, “Iman”, 242-3, Istanbul 1992; Tirmizi, Sunen-i Tirmizi, “Fitan”, 54, Istanbul 1992; other see, for hadiths, which talks about return of Jesus to earth, Muslim, Sahih-i Muslim, “Iman”, 244-7, “Hajj”, 216; “Fitan”, 34, 39, 110; Tirmizi, Sunen-i Tirmizi, “Fitan”, 21, 59. [19] Suleyman Ates, Kur’an Ansiklopedisi, X, 218. [20] Aal-i Imran, 3/55; an-Nisa, 4/157. [21] “And there is none of the People of the Book but must believe in him before his death; and on the Day of Judgment he will be a witness against them”, an-Nisa, 4/159. [22] “And most surely, it is knowledge of the hour, therefore have no doubt about it and follow me: this is the right path”, az-Zukhruf, 43/61. [23] “Never said I to them aught except what Thou didst command me to say, to wit, ‘worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord’; and I was a witness over them whilst I dwelt amongst them; when Thou didst take me up Thou wast the Watcher over them, and Thou art a witness to all things”, al-Maida, 5/117. [24] Aal-i Imran, 3/55. [25] See, az-Zukhruf, 43/61. [26] It is from Quranic sciences, that it interested in with different read the Quran. [27] Mutawatir Hadith: The most important are Hadiths. These kind Hadiths reports from very large groups to large groups. To unite on the same lie is impossible; because many people heard the same sentence from the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). (I.e. Prophet Muhammad spoke in front of army) Ahad Hadith: The second kind of Hadith, does not have the same characters like Mutawatir Hadiths. The majority of Sunni Islamic scholars accept that Ahad Hadiths cannot be proof for faith, because this kind of knowledge is not yaqin (certain knowledge) and it expresses zan (Habar-i Vahid / doubt, suspicion) in belief issues. See, Yusuf Sevki Yavuz, “Haber-i Vahid”, DIA, Istanbul 1996, XIV., p. 353-355. [28] See, Psalm., 24:7-10; Matt., 25:31; Act, 3:19-21; Rev., 20:4; 22:5; 22:20-21. [29] Six Hadiths collection that it is very famous and important in Islamic sciences. [30] Muhtalif’ul Hadith science interested in with contradictory Hadiths. [31] See, M. Hayri Kirbas, “Hz. Isa’yi (as) Gokten Indiren Hadislerin Tenkidi, Islamiyat 2000, III, Sayi 4, p. 147-168. [32] Ilyas Celebi, “Isa”, DIA, XXII, 472-473. [33] Suleyman Ates, Kuran Ansiklopedisi, X, 218. [34] Muslims believe in that Allah has sent only one Gospel and only Torah which is the first five books of the Hebrew Bible/Tanakh. [35] el-Maida, 5/46. [36] al-Ahzab, 33/40, other see, Mehmed Aydin, “Besairu’n-nubuvve”, DIA, V, 550. [37] Ilyas Celebi, “Isa”, DIA, XXII, 472-3. [38] Aal-i Imran, 3/19. [39] “Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but (he is) the Messenger of Allah, and the last (seal) of the Prophets: and Allah has full knowledge of all things.” al-Ahzab, 33/40. [40] Ilyas Celebi, “Isa”, DIA, XXII, 472-473. [41] Aal-i Imran, 3/55.

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