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  • Rıdvan Demir

JESUS CHRIST IN THE QURAN AND IN THE GOSPELS



The Jesus theme is mainly discussed in five big topics in the Quran and the Gospels.

  1. The Birth of Jesus

  2. The Miracles of Jesus

  3. The Identification of Jesus and Crucifixion of Jesus (His mission)

  4. The Death

  5. His Mother Mary (I will not discuss, because it is irrelevant)


  1. The Birth of Jesus


Jesus was born as a miracle from Virgin Mary according to the Quran and also to the Gospels. Ruh (Spirit) appeared as a man in front of her in all respects and said: I am only a messenger from your Lord and I will give you a son. Mary was very amazed, because she was a virgin still and a very pure woman, (Al-i imran, 3:47) but Ruh says: this is a sign from Allah and it is a matter so decreed. Thus Jesus was born from Virgin Mary as a miracle (el-Maryam, 19:16-22). In this point, all Jews criticized and blamed her, contrarily, it is very clear that the Quran and the Gospels are very parallel in this point. The Matthew Gospel states very clearly that Jesus was born from the Holy Spirit as a miracle. Even God ordered her betrothed Joseph of David’s son that “do not leave from Mary and hold her near.” (Matthew, 1:18-25, Luke, 26-38). In this concept, Islam and Christianity are very close; unfortunately Judaism is so difficult in this issue. (For extra information: 19:23-35). Besides, the Quran says: “and we made the son of Mary and his mother as a (ayeh) sign”. (el-Muminun, 23:50). This sign is the birth of Jesus as a miracle by Allah.

  1. The Miracles of Jesus


The miracles of Jesus are very different in the Quran and the Gospels. The Quran sometimes emphasizes his speech when he was a baby (Al-i imran, 3:46), sometimes it emphasizes his giving soul to a bird; and also he revivified the dead, cured and healed blinds and other illnesses, and he declared to humans what you eat, and what you store in their houses, but he makes and knows these of all by Allah’s leave. (Al-i imran, 3:49); (for the by my leave version, el-Maida, 5:110). “…and people brought to him all who were ill with various diseases, those suffering severe pain, the demon-possessed, those having seizures, and the paralyzed, and healed them.” (Matthew, 4:24). Jesus healed the man with leprosy, (Matthew, 8:3). He also revivified the girl when he said talitha koum! (it means little girl I say to you, get up, Mark, 5:41) and he revivified Lazarus (John, 11:43-44). There are more than many miracles of Jesus in the Gospels.


Some religious authorities say that: Allah has given the medicine to the West, because medicine miracles were given to Jesus. Nevertheless Allah has given the literature also to the East, because literature miracles were given to Prophet Muhammad; that was the Quran.



  1. The Identification of Jesus and Crucifixion of Jesus


The Quran emphasizes the identity of Jesus the most. In this context, the biggest emphases are what Jesus was not. Firstly, Jesus was not God and part (son) of God. Secondly his mother was not God’s mother (Theotokos) as Catholics say. While some Christian denominations have said God wanted to send Jesus from himself, some Christian denominations have said Jesus wanted to leave from God. The Quran has explained that in chapter Ikhlas: Lem yelid velem yuuled: it means, “He begets not, nor is He begotten.” (Ikhlas, 112:3) The Quran has talked about who Jesus was not with insistence everywhere.


On the other hand the Quran has stated who Jesus was. The Quran has expressed this problem as very clear that Jesus was a son of Man and also a prophet (Nabi and Rasul). Nevertheless, he is from Ulu’l azm Prophets who are the biggest five prophets in Islam. Besides he is a son of Mary. The Quran said this for the purpose of saying that he was not Son of God. In this point, the Quran states that Jesus and Mary were eating food. It means they were not divine, they were humans.


The Gospels were not very clear about the divinity of Jesus, but Jesus is stated as a God in the letters, particularly in the letters of Paul. According to Paul, God has planned the biggest plan with Jesus. Firstly, God has sent Jesus on earth from himself as a message, he lived our life, and then secondly he was crucified for our sin on the cross and thirdly he will come back for humankind and everything will be much better. We can only find the Trinity doctrine in the Matthew Gospel in 28:19. In this situation, Jesus is God as a Son of God according to Christianity. It is very interesting that Jesus also is man and prophet. Christian interpreters have explained that Jesus has one body, but he has two different characters. He is message from God in Christianity, but he is messenger from Allah in Islam, we can say in this point that Christianity and Islam have very different revelation systems.


  1. The Death

His death and crucifixion relation and also his identity are very close in both religions, but I want to examine that in this section. Chapter en-Nisa, 4: 157-158. This verse is very famous concerning Jesus. The Quran has been expressed as very clear that: he was not killed and crucified, “but so it was made to appear to them, and those who differ therein are full of doubt, with no (certain) knowledge, but only conjecture to fellow, for of a surety they did not kill him. Nay, Allah raised him up to himself; and Allah is exalted in power, wise.” I understand that ‘Jesus was not killed’, however it does not means ‘he did not die’ and he is still alive, namely he died and raised his soul to Allah according to verse 158. In Christian perspective Jesus was crucified on the cross for our sins, thus god will forgive us (Romans, 3:22-26; Ephesians, 2:13-18). There is the cross in the gospels, but almost there is not the cross doctrine in the Gospels.


As a result, Jesus is God, Son of God, son of man, son of Mary, man in Christianity, because he is message from god. Nevertheless Jesus is man, servant, prophet, and son of Mary in Islam, because he is messenger from Allah. The miracles of Jesus and his birth are very parallel, his death and his identity are very different in the Quran and the Gospels.

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